高考英语一轮复习 语法突破 专题五 介词与介词短语课件1_图文

第二部分 基础语法突破

专题五 介词与介词短语

用来表明名词、代词与句中其他词的关系的词叫做 介词。介词是虚词,不能单独作句子成分,需要和它后 面的词共用充当句子成分。

一、表示时间的介词 1.表示“在??”的 in,on,at
介词 用法

in

后接时间段,如世纪、朝代、时代、年、 季节、月等或表示上午、下午、晚上的词, 即在较长的一段时间内。 Many flowers are blossoming in spring. 许多花在春季绽放。 In 2010,he graduated from Shandong University. 2010年,他毕业于山东大学。

on

后接表示特定的日子、具体的日期、星期几、节日或具 体某一天的上午、下午或晚上的词。 They set out on a Friday morning. 他们在一个周五的早上出发了。 On September 18,they held a party to celebrate Hellen's birthday. 9月18日那天,他们举行聚会为海伦过生日。 后接表示某一具体时刻,或把某一段时间看作某一时刻 的词及某些节假日的名词。 We often have lunch at 12:00. 我们经常12点吃午饭。 People send each other cards and presents at Christmas. 人们在圣诞节互赠贺卡和礼物。

at

2.表示“在一段时间内”的 during,in
介词 用法

during

强调时间的延续,可以表示在某段时间内自始至终 的状态,谓语动词一般是延续性的。 During the meal we talked about the TV play. 我们在吃饭时谈起了那部电视剧。 The shop was closed during the whole three months. 整整3个月那家商店都没有营业。
较准确地说出某动作发生的时间。The fire happened in the evening. 那场大火发生在晚上。

in

3.表示“??之后”的 in,after
介词 用法 “in+一段时间”用于一般将来时, 表示将来的一段时间之后。We will meet again in two weeks. 两周后我们还会再见面的。 This project will be finished in four months. 这个项目4个月后完工。

in

after

“after+一段时间”用于一般过去时, 表示过去的一段时间之后。 He left home in 1984 and came home after twenty years. 他1984年离家,20年之后才回来。 “after+时间点”可用于一般将来时, 表示某一时刻之后。 My father will be back after four o'clock. 我父亲4点之后回来。

“ in + 一 段 时 间 ” 也 可 用 于 一 般 过 去 时 , 意 为 “在??以内”。 He wrote the book in two and a half years. 他在两年半的时间内写完了这本书。

4.表示“在??之前”的 by,before
介词
by

用法 表示“不迟于某时”,包括某时在内。 I will finish the work by Friday. 最晚星期五我会完成这项工作。(包括 星期五在内)

表示“在某时之前”,不包括某时在内。 I will finish the work before Friday. before 星期五之前我会完成这项工作。(不包 括星期五)

5.表示时间延续的 for,from,since
介词 用法 “for+时间段”表示动作延续多久,不涉 及动作的起始与终止时间。作时间状语 时,句子可用一般过去时、完成时或将 来时。 I worked in this factory for ten years. 我在这家工厂工作过10年。 I have worked in this factory for ten years. 我在这家工厂已经工作10年了。 I will stay in Shanghai for ten days. 我要在上海待10天。

for

“from+时间点”表示行为或状态的起始时间, 不涉及持续时间的长短。 from My younger sister began to learn dance from the age of five. 我妹妹从5岁时就开始学习舞蹈。 “since+时间点”说明动作的起始时间,表示 自过去某时延续至今的一段时间,常与现在 完成时或现在完成进行时连用。 since I haven't seen her since ten years ago. 自从10年前我就再没见过她。 She has been watching TV since seven o'clock. 她从7点开始就一直看电视。

二、表示地点的介词 1.表示两地位置关系的 in,on,to
介词 用法 表示某一地域之内的某方位。Shandong Province is in the east of China. 山东位于中国东部。 表示与某地相邻的关系。Shandong Province is on the north of Jiangsu Province. 山东省在江苏省的北面。 表示在某一地域之外的某方位(不属于该范围)。 Japan lies to the east of China. 日本在中国的东边。

in

on

to

2.表示上下位置关系的 on,beneath;over,under; above,below
用法 on表示“在……之上”,意指与 表面有接触,反义词是beneath。 There are some bananas on the desk. on和 beneath 桌子上有些香蕉。 The earth lay beneath a blanket of snow. 大地被厚厚的白雪覆盖着。 介词

over表示“在……之上”, 指在物体的正上方或覆盖在 物体表面,反义词是under。 A lamp was hanging over the table. 桌子上方吊着一盏灯。 over和under We spread a carpet over the floor. 我们给地板铺上了地毯。 They are playing chess under the tree. 他们正在树下下棋。

above表示“在……之上”,指 离开物体表面而在其上方,但 不一定是正上方,反义词是 below。 above和below The plane flew above the clouds. 飞机在云层上飞行。 Please do not write below this line. 请不要写在这条线下面。

3.表示“穿过;越过;经过”的 across,through, over,past
介词 across 用法

表示“横穿,穿越”,运动在物体 的表面进行。 They ran straight across the road. 他们径直跑过了马路。

表示“穿过”,运动在物体内部进 行。 through Walk through the small gate and you will find the garage. 穿过那扇小门,你就看见车库了。

over

past

表示“从(某物)一边到另一边”,强调 从上方跨过、越过。 Go over the mountain,and you can see my hometown. 翻过那座山你就能看见我的家乡了。 表示“从……旁经过”。 Will you be going past my house on your way home? 你回家的路上会经过我家吗?

4.表示“在??之间”的 between,among

介词

用法

between

among

一般指空间或时间上的两者之间或 多者中的两两之间。 They planted a lot of trees between the two buildings. 他们在两座楼之间种了很多树。 一般指在三者或三者以上之间。He quickly disappeared among the crowd. 他很快消失在人群中。

三、表示运动方向的 along,into,to,from
介词 用法 表示动作“沿着”某物进行。 I was driving my car along a muddy path. 我正沿着一条泥泞的小路开车。 表示动作“进入……里面”;还 可表示“朝,向;触及”。 The man walked into the house in the dark. 那个男人摸黑走进了屋里。

along

into

to

表示动作的朝向,意为“朝,向,对 着(某方向或某处)”。 She is on the way to the train station. 她正在去火车站的路上。

from

表示某人、某物出发的源地和方向。 He comes from Shanghai. 他来自上海。 Ernest ran away from home twice. 厄内斯特两次离家出走。

四、常用介词短语的构成 1.介词+名词 for example 例如 in common 共同的 in hospital 住院 in need 需要 on earth 究竟 on business 出差 on show 展览

2.形容词+介词 be good/bad for 对??有益处/害处 be good/bad at 擅长/不擅长于?? be famous for 因??而出名 be famous as 作为??而出名 be angry with sb.生某人的气 be strict with 对??要求严格

3.动词+介词 be made of 由??制成(从成品中能看出原材料) be made from 由??制成(从成品中看不出原材料) belong to 属于 agree to 同意 be made up of 由??组成(强调由单个的个体组成) be/become used to(doing)sth.习惯于(做)某事 be used as 被当作??来使用 answer for 对??负责

to 既可作动词不定式符号, 后接动词原形, 也可用作 介词,后跟名词、代词或动名词。在下列词组中 to 为介 词,在使用时应特别注意,后接动词时,需用其动名词形 式。如: pay attention to 注意 lead to 导致 look forward to 期望 be/get used to 习惯于

易混介词短语辨析
介词短语 because of 用法 例句 Because of illness,the boy did not go to school. 这个男孩生病了,所以没 去上学。 The flight was delayed owing to technical reasons. 这次飞行由于技术原因而 被推迟。

一般作状语, 不作表语,位 于句首或句尾

通常作状语, owing to 一般不用作表 语

due to

通常作表语或状 语,一般不位于 句首 “幸亏,多亏”, 只能作状语,多 表示正面意义, 有时也表示讽刺 含义

thanks to

The failure is due to his carelessness. 失败是由他的粗 心造成的。 Thanks to you, everyone knows about it now. 多亏了你,现在 大家都知道此事 了。

一、基础过关 Ⅰ.用适当的介词填空 1.She will leave for England________a month. 2.The relation________the teachers and students now is not what it used to be. 3.Leave your things________the table in the house. 4.The Greens left for home________the morning of June 20.

5.We walked our way________the supermarket to the destination. 6 . Take care ! The lighted cigarette may burn ______your trousers. 7.The United States is________the south of Canada and________the east of Japan. 8.________the Australian north eastern coast lies the world-famous Great Barrier Reef.

9.His brother has been in the army________ten years. 10.Susan got back into bed and pulled the quilt ________her head. 11.We walked________the river and found several boats________the water. 12 . We travelled overnight to Paris and arrived ________5 o'clock________the morning.

13 . There was a table________the left of the doorway. 14 . The temperature of yesterday was 12 ℃ ________zero in Shandong, and it was very warm for winter. 15.________anywhere in the city of Shanghai, you can see the top of the East Pearl.

答案:1.in 2.between 3.on 4.on 5.past 6.in 7.on;to 8.Along 9.for 10.over 11. along; on 12.at; in 13.to 14.above 15.From

Ⅱ.单句改错 1.Growing up in the poor condition,the brothers went across thick and thin together.________ 2. My house lies in the east of his. We are neighbours. ________ 3.He has been playing the guitar from 7 o'clock. ________

4.The policeman dived in the water and rescued the drowning child.________ 5.Mr.White stayed up and finished the task in 3:30 the next morning.________ 6 . Don't stand below the tree during the thunderstorm. ________ 7.In a particular afternoon, my mother brought a little boy in.________

8 . The children walked across the forest by themselves. ________ 9.The Browns left for Hong Kong in the morning of July 27.________ 10 . He is between the greatest writers in the world.________

答案:1.across 改成 through 2.in 改成 on 3.from 改成 since 4.in 改成 into 5.in 改成 at 6.below 改为 under 7.In 改为 On 8.across 改为 through

9.in 改为 on 10.between 改为 among

二、高分突破 根据语境填入适当的介词 1.It was a real race________time to get the project done. Luckily,we made it. 2.A serious study of physics is impossible ________ some knowledge of mathematics. 3.I have an appointment________Dr.Smith,but I need to change it.

4 . The Smiths are praised________the way they bring up their children. 5.It will be a big help if you go to the store and get what we need for dinner.________the meanwhile,I'll set the table. 6.The new boy looked at the teacher________a few seconds and all the other students wondered what the boy would do.

7.I didn't want to be laughed at for talking to him but I didn't like leaving him________his own either. 8.His teacher took a deep drink and thanked his student very much for the sweet water.The young man went home________a happy heart. 9.Jane stopped where a small crowd of men had gathered. She found some good quality pipes________ sale.

10 . When Jane got home , with her small but well-chosen present in her bag, her parents were already________table having supper. 11 . Chinese proverbs are rich and they are still widely used in Chinese people's daily life.______these proverbs there are often interesting stories. 12.He was very tired________doing this for a whole day.

13.He asked me to feed the birds for him and said that he would leave the key________his front door in my mailbox. 14.More and more waste is produced________the development of modern agriculture and industry. 15.We should take some measures to fight________ pollution.

答 案 : 1.against 6.for 7 . on 8.with

2.without

3.with

4.for

5.In

9.on

10.at

11.Behind/In

12.after/from 13.to 14.with 15.against


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