高中英语完形填空解题技巧剖析


完形填空解题技巧剖析
一.命题趋势
近年完形填空题会逐渐摈弃语法分析,朝着深层化和语境化的方面挖掘,因此考生只有借助上下 文乃至全文语境的启示,揣摩作者的心情及态度。在答题过程中,除了对关联用语的把握外,还要把 握语气、动作等的描写。

二.四大体裁完形填空
(一)记叙文型完形填空 记叙文型完形填空可分为记事和记人两种形式。在记事性记叙文的完形填空中,作者在文章的第 一句就已经把事件及其发生的时间、地点、人物交代清楚,然后对这件事情的发生、发展进行陈述。 通过对事件的叙述,反映出作者的某种思想,最后得出事件产生的结果。记叙文在高考中占了很大的 比例。这些记叙文有人物故事、历史故事、励志故事等,作者入手的角度也是各有千秋,涉及社会、 家庭、历史、文化、健康、当今社会科学的最新发展等各方面,作为每年高考的一个主打体裁,命题 人在选材上是费尽了脑汁,但总体来讲它一般要有以下两个特点: 1. 情节曲折,信息量大,结尾往往出人意料。今年高考完形填空往往在情节上有较大的曲折变 化,并且结果出人意料,在文章的写作风格上作者不再是单纯地去叙述某个人、某件事,而是在叙述 过程中把对人物的语言、行为、心理活动的描写也都融入文章的叙述中来,这样无疑就增加了考生理 解的难度。因此对于考生来说应理清故事发展的脉络,根据人物的语言、行为及心理活动等去了解作 者的写作意图,对故事的发展和结局做出合理的想象和预测。 2. 文章内容为中学生所关注和熟悉的话题,有亲切感,能引起学生的共鸣。近几年高考完形填 空中有很多是反映人际关系、当今科学发展对人际关系的影响等文章,这些是学生平时在生活中接触 比较多的话题,因此对于学生来说容易接受,没有陌生感。写作体例上也不是单纯地采用一般的叙述 方式。 (二)夹叙夹议型完形填空 此类文章往往是高考中的较难的题目,也是最容易造成失分的一种文章体裁。在夹叙夹议形式的 完形填空中,作者首先叙述一个事件,然后就此事件提出自己的见解或由此事件引出一个深刻的社会 主题,所选的有关文章蕴含深刻的人生哲理,鉴于这一点考生不但要理解文章的字面意思,更重要的 是挖掘文章的内涵,只有做到了这一点,考生才能透彻理解文章,做好完形填空。夹叙夹议的完型填 空一般有以下三个特点: 1. 先叙述作者自己的某一个生活经历或见闻,然后针对这一事件发表自己对生活的看法,或揭 示生活的真理。 2. 作者先提出一种观点或看法。然后围绕这一观点或看法用具体的事例加以说明,有时也可能 是用几个事例从不同侧面来说明。 3. 提出一种观点或见解,然后用某一事例来阐述这一观点,最后再进一步地总结和升华。 对于夹叙夹议的完形填空,抓住作者要说明的观点或要阐述的生活哲理是做好这一类题目的关 键,而作者叙述所发生的事件或生活经历只是为表达其思想服务的。 对于夹叙夹议型的完形填空还要把叙和议有机地结合起来。有的考生没有注意到这一点,他们把 叙述与议论分割开来,只顾选某个部分的答案,而没有注意到事件与论点之间的关系。这时,文章主 旨的部分就不可能处理好。 (三)说明文型完形填空、议论文型完形填空 1. 说明文型完形填空

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在说明文型完形填空中,作者一般是首先提出一个要说明的对象,如某种理论、某种方法、某种 技巧、某项活动,然后按照从时间、空间、事情发展的顺序,再运用举例、对比、演绎、归纳等一定 的方式进行介绍说明。说明文型完形填空常就某一个问题从不同的角度来加以说明,文章可以是用来 说明某一个存在的社会现象,一个产品的制造过程,一种产品的使用方法、某个科学成就或人类生活 中所面临的某个具体的难题。对于这一类型的完形填空,就考生而言最重要的还是抓住作者说明的中 心。说明文所呈现的方式往往较为单一,作者往往一开始就交代说明的对象,然后再从不同的角度进 行说明。由于以上特点,这类文章的每一段往往就是其中的一个角度或侧面,所以考生一般要注意慨 括每一个段落的主旨大意,尤其是文章每一段的开头或结尾,作者往往对说明的话题进行慨括说明。 2. 议论文型完形填空 议论形式的完形填空一般是直接提出论点,通过论据论证,最后作者提出自己的看法或提出另一 个话题供大家讨论。解答这类题要遵循下列原则: A. 对于议论型的完形填空,在掌握全文主旨的情况下,抓住每段的首句是非常重要的。有一项 调查结果表明:英语中有 60%-90%的议论文的主旨是文章的首句,抓住了文章的主旨也就“牵住了牛 鼻子” ,再理解文章页就不难了。 B. 理清文章的论点、论据和结论。与记叙文型完形填空相比,议论文型完形填空更难做一些。 一般的记叙文是按时间顺序进行描述的,我们只要把握时间的发生、发展过程就能将情景把握好。然 而,议论文型完形填空就没有这么简单了,若果我们对论点、论据、结论都把握不清,只能是莽撞地 选择答案。一般说来,能说明论点的主要内容的答案可以在论据里得到印证,且论点里某些答案也可 以与论据有机地结合起来,使论点论据形成相辅相成的关系,从而使整篇文章内容上下一致。如果我 们所选的答案前后矛盾,论点与论据相悖,最后的结论与论点相矛盾,那就说明我们队文章的把握还 欠条理性和系统性,我们需要重新来理顺文章中的各个部分,直到条理清晰为止,然后再依据自己对 文章的把握及各部分的逻辑关系选出答案。

三.解题技巧剖析
(一) 利用首句信息,推测语篇主旨 完形填空所选短文的第一句通常为主题句,一般不设空。把握了主题句对于理解全文和解题很有 帮助。如: Body language is the quiet, secret and most powerful language of all! It speaks____than words. According to specialists, our bodies send out more____than we realize. 1. A. straighter 2. A. sounds B. louder B. invitations C. harder C. feeling D. Further D. Messages

(二) 寻找暗示信息,重视语境意义 完形填空主要考查考生对语境的理解,所以考生在做题时要有全局观念,进行连贯性思维,要把 每个空白处的含义与前后句的意思联系起来理解,进行合乎逻辑的推理判断。难选之处通常前后多有 暗示,这种暗示多为后面暗示前面。 一般来说,完形填空的四个选项形式完全相同,如都是动词原形、都是副词、都是名词复数形式 等,所以要注意他们之间在意义和搭配上的细微差异,形义兼顾。同时,一定要把这些选项放到特定 的语境里进行区分、判别,从而选出正确答案。如: Later that day at home, I began to consider my teeth again. I felt upset. I though my life would be somehow better if my teeth were not gappy. How I wanted the perfect teeth that everyone else seemed to have! Of course, Mom noticed everything. She has lived her entire life with gappy teeth, and tried to convince me that there was nothing to ____.

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1. A. worry about

B. put off

C. give up

D. wipe out

(三) 识别语篇标志,理清逻辑关系 语篇一般指比句子长的语言单位,如句群、段落、篇章等。语篇与语篇之间往往有表明其内在 联系的词语,这些词语被称为“语篇标志” 。如表示结构层次的 firstly,secondly,thirdly,finally 等;表示 逻辑关系的语篇标志语有 thus, therefore,so 等;表示改变话题的语篇标志有 by the way 等;表示递进 关系的语篇标志语有 besides, what’s more, furthermore 等; 表示时间关系的语篇标志语有 before, so far, yet, meanwhile, later 等;表示转折关系的语篇标志语有 but,while,on the other hand, although 等。在做完 形填空时,如果能充分利用这些语篇标志语有就可以迅速理清文章的脉络,弄清上下文的关系。如: I tried picking up trash myself, but the job was too big. I would spend an hour or two on the job, only to find the area trashed all over again weeks later. Finally, I got so____it that I decided something had to change. 1. A. satisfied with C. tired of (四) 利用原词复现,寻找近义词语 完形填空试题中,有些词语常常重复出现在语篇之中。词汇复现的语用意义使得语篇中的句子相 互衔接和连贯,从而构成一个完整和有机的意义整体。在阅读文章的过程中,有时也会发现一些与选 项意义紧密相连的同义词或近义词,因此要学会充分利用这些词提供的有效信息进行合理的推测判 断,选出正确答案。如: I fell in love with Yosemite National Park the first time I saw it, when I was 13. My parents took us there for camping. On the way out, I asked them to wait while I ran up to EL Capitan, a____rock of 3,300 feet straight up. I touched that giant rock and knew immediately I wanted to climb it. That has been my life’s passion ever since - ____the rocks and mountains of Yosemite. I’ve long made Yosemite my home 1. A. distant 2. A. imaging B. huge B. painting C.narrow C. describing D. Loose D. Climbing B. delighted in D. used to

(五) 巧用背景常识,简化判断过程 完形填空命题的基本形式是独立的语篇,它以自身的内容提供完整的语篇信息,但其中有时渗透 着相关的如文化科学、历史地理、风俗民情等方面的知识。考生在做题时,若能积极地调动自己的文 化背景知识和生活常识,巧妙地加以运用,特别是注意中西文化的差异,将会大大简化复杂的分析与 判断过程,节省宝贵的时间,顺利地沿作者的思路阅读下去。如: Since I hated to be inaccurate, I went back to Mr.Johnson and asked him to fix an odometer on my bicycle. He agreed, but added, “An odometer without a speedometer is like a ____ without a knife.”I admitted he was right and in a few minutes, the two devices were attached to the handlebars of my bicycle. “what about a horn?”he then asked. “look, this horn is no larger than a matchbox and has many functions.”Attracted by these functions, I bought the horn. 1. A. pencil B. fork C. box D. cake

(六) 注意习惯用语,熟记常见句型 答题时通过分析习惯用法、词语搭配、固定搭配等搭配关系和句子结构,进行有效的推理判断, 从而选出正确选项。因此平时要有意识地记忆一些常用的词语搭配、习惯用法、固定搭配,学会分析 句子结构。这类题目要求我们不仅能够记忆这些词和词组,还要学会灵活使用,准确判断。对常见句 型的掌握也很重要。有些句型在经过反复使用后,会让我们形成一定的思维定势,这对确定题目答案

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很有帮助。如: “I grew up on a hundred-acre farm and had only cats ____ playmates,”Kruger, the seventy-year-old man,says.“My hearing was damaged by the noise of farm equipment, so I learned to connect with animals. They react to what they see and what you do.” 1. A. Like B.as C. Except D. Among

四.典型例题讲解
For a long time I saw happiness as a huge banner across the finish line of a long race. I felt that only when I____ certain things could I really be happy in my life. Most of the time I felt like a tortoise believing that being slow and ____ would win the race. At other times I would ____ like a rabbit trying different side roads at a dangerous ____ hoping to reach that banner a little faster. ____ ,!I began to see that no matter how long I raced towards it, the banner was never any ____ . I finally decided one day to ____ and take a break. It was then that I saw my ____ setting beside me . It had been with me as I ____ hard to support my family, as I played with my children and heard their ____ and even when I was ____ with my wife at my side looking after me. It had been with me as I raced towards that stupid banner. I just did’t have the ____ to see it. There is an old Chinese proverb that says,“Tension is what you think you should be. ____ is who you are.”Perhaps we all should stop our race towards the ____ life we think we should have and ____ the life we have now. Happiness will never be found under some banner far away. It will be found ____ your own heart, soul and mind. It will be found when you ____ that others love you just as you do. Don’t be a tortoise or a rabbit when it comes to your happiness. Be a playful puppy and carry your stick of ____ with you everywhere you go. ____ yourself out of the race and realize that when it comes to love and happiness you are ____ there.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

A.forgot A.safe A.act A.place A.Generally A.clearer A.settle in A.happiness A.studied A.laughter A.lonely A.courage A.Stress A.real A.enjoy A.from A.realize A.sorrow

B.missed B.steady B.run B.height B.Gradually B.lower B.start off B.goal B.fought B.complaints B.tired B.chance B.Relaxation B.perfect B.change B.on B.believe B.responsibility

C.overcame C.calm C.jump C.speed C.Unfortunately C.closer C.stop by C.success C.exercised C.stories C.sick C.wisdom C.Failure C.common C.improve C.over C.hope C.fortune

D.accomplished D.quiet D.walk D.time D.Firstly D.smaller D.sit down D.friendship D.worked D.breathing D.hungry D.strength D.Perfect D.colorful D.colorful D.in D.admit D.joy

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19 A.Carry 20 A.never

B.Make B.still

C.Push C.already

D.Take D.ever

五.课后实战演练
Education from My Father My memories of my father are slim because he was so sick in the last years of his life. But there are 1 that I am often reminded of and which may have had some bearing on my love of When I was small I was somewhat explanation was in 4 later, but I didn’t have to unlearn anything. What he said was that there was electricity in the clouds When it travelled 10 11 . He explained why if it was cloudy in the winter the night was warmer than if it was could 14 13 12 . It was one 7 the air it made the air so hot that it 9 had been and the air all around rushed in to 6 it travelled to the ground like a spark. 8 . Then there was nothing where the air 3 2 . 5 of lightning and thunder. My father explained it. The

that a child could understand but was basically correct. I gained a better

the space. He clapped his hands together very loud,

to be the air rushing in, and said that makes the thunder. When I hear thunder, I can still hear that

of those nights when the sky was full of stars: no moon, no town lights. But there were more stars than you and they had color too. He said that if there were no clouds, we had no blankets and were 15 the whole universe. When there were clouds, they 16 feel on the edge of space on a very 18 , in to the universe. Our warmth was going to

were like blankets and we were not exposed to the universe. I clear night. I am sure there were many other lessons that I world was to live in. I was not taught that there were for it. This may be why I have always been 1. A. others 2. A. science 3. A. sure 4. A. depth 5. A. understanding 6. A. but 7. A. above 8. A. shone 9. A. fill 10. A. trying 11. A. clap 12. A. cold 13. A. explore 14. A. committed B. few B. nature B. fond B. words B. knowledge B. and B. to B. burned B. make B. proving B. remark B. bright B. foresee B. exposed 20 17 19

but no longer remember. What I did

general, was that there were explanations and that the more I understood them, the more comfortable the but that there was understanding if you looked in science. D. all D. universe D. afraid D. data D. confidence D. or D. through D. broke D. break D. pretending D. crash D. foggy D. identify D. led
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C. some C. weather C. tired C. gestures C. command C. for C. along C. expanded C. avoid C. hoping C. voice C. clear C. imagine C. related

15. A. heat 16. A. ever 17. A. selected 18. A. consider 19. A. memories 20. A. engaged

B. protect B. also B. arranged B. promise B. blankets B. interested

C. extend C. even C. absorbed C. explain C. mysteries C. successful

D. light D. still D. delivered D. learn D. thunders D. skillful

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