高中英语 Unit 4 Learning efficiently Period 3 Grammar & Writing课件 新人教版选修10_图文

Unit 4 Learning efficiently Period 3 Grammar & Writing 课

件(人教版选修10,课标通用)

虚拟语气
一、定义 虚拟语气用来表示说话人的主观愿望或假想,所说的是 一个条件,不一定是事实,或与事实相反。 二、虚拟语气在条件句中的应用

条件句可分为两类,一类为真实条件句,一类为非真实
条件句。非真实条件句表示的是假设的或实际可能性不 大的情况,故采用虚拟语气。

1.真实条件句
真实条件句用于陈述语气,假设的情况可能发生,其中if 是“如果”的意思。 2.虚拟语气在非真实条件句中的运用 虚拟条件 主句 例句

与现在 事实相 反的
If+主语 +动词的 过去式(be 动词用 were) 主语+ should/woul d/could/mig ht+动词原 形 If I had time,I would attend the meeting. If I were you,I should seize the chance to go abroad.

假设

虚拟条件 与过去事 实相反的 If+主语+ had+过去分 词

主句

例句

假设

If you had 主语+ taken my should/would/ advice,you could/might+ would not have+过去分 have failed in 词 the exams.

与将来事 实相反的

虚拟条件

主句

例句

假设

If you came tomorrow, we would have the ①If+主语+ meeting. 动词过去式 If it were to rain 主语+ ②If+主语+ should/wou tomorrow,the sports were to+动 ld/could/mi meeting would be put 词原形 ght+动词 off. ③If+主语+ If he should not come 原形 should+动词 tomorrow,we should 原形 put off the meeting till next Monday.

使用虚拟条件句时要注意的几点: (1)错综时间条件句

当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发生的时间
不一致时,被称为“错综时间条件句”,动词的形式要根据 它所表示的时间做出相应的调整。如: If you had taken my advice,you would know what to do now.

要是那时你听我劝告的话,你现在就知道该做什么了。

(2)if的省略和倒装 在条件句中可省略 if,把were,had,should 提到句首,变

为倒装句式。
If I were at school again,I would study harder. →Were I at school again,I would study harder. If you had come earlier,you would catch the bus. →Had you come earlier,you would catch the bus.

If it should rain tomorrow,we would not go chimbing.
→Should it rain tomorrow,we would not go chimbing.

注意: 当省略的条件句中的谓语动词是否定形式时,不能 用动词的缩略形式。比如,我们可以说:Were it not for the

expense,I would go abroad now.但不能说:Weren't it for
the expense,I would go abroad now.

(3)含蓄条件句
① 用 介 词 短 语 代 替 条 件 状 语 从 句 。 常 用 的 介 词 有 with , without,but for。 What would you do with a million dollars?(=if you had a million dollars)

We couldn't have finished the work ahead of time without
your help.(=if we hadn't got your help) Without your help , we couldn't have finished the work ahead of time.(=But for your help,...=If it had not been for your help,...=Had it not been for your help,...)

②用otherwise,however,but或分词短语等代替条件状语从 句。

He would have gone to the party,but he was ill yesterday.
他昨天想去参加宴会,但是那时他病了。 The firemen arrived in time.Otherwise the house would have been burnt to the ground. 消防队员及时赶到了,不然的话,房子就烧毁了。

Given more attention,the trees could have grown better.
若是多加注意,这些树就会长得更好。

三、虚拟语气在名词性从句中的运用 1.用于宾语从句中

(1)wish 后的宾语从句一般用虚拟语气,表示一种不可能
实现的愿望。其谓语动词构成形式为:
?过去时(宾语从句动作与 wish同时发生) ? ?过去完成时(宾语从句动作先于 wish发生) ? ?could/would/might+动词原形,即过去将来时(宾语从句动 ? ? 作后于 wish发生

I wish I remembered his address. 我希望我记得他的地址。

I wish I had studied hard.我多么希望我那时学习刻苦。 (2) 表 示 建 议 、 决 定 、 要 求 、 请 求 、 命 令 、 指 导 的 动 词

(suggest/insist/decide/demand/request/require/ask/beg/order/
direct等)后跟宾语从句时,从句用虚拟语气(即should+动词 原形,should可以省略)。 The doctor suggested/insisted that she(should)stay in bed for a few days.医生建议/坚持她卧床几天。

注意: 当suggest作“暗示、表明”讲,insist作“坚持说”
讲,即坚持事实是怎样时,that 从句中的谓语动词不用虚拟 语气。例如: The look on his face suggested that he was unhappy. 他脸上的表情暗示出他不高兴。

Mike insisted that he was right.迈克坚持认为自己是对的。

(3)would (had) rather,would just as soon,would sooner, would prefer+从句结构,这几个句型都表示一种“婉转的

责备”,谓语动词用过去式表示现在或将来,用过去完成式
表示与过去事实相反。 I would rather you didn't go there. 我宁愿你不去那儿。 (4)If only 引导的感叹句中。

If only I were a bird! 我要是只鸟儿多好啊!

2.用于主语从句中 It is

desired/suggested/proposed/necessary/important/strange/
natural/a pity/essential+that 从句,从句中的谓语动词用 “should+动词原形”,should 可以省略。 It is suggested that the meeting(should)be put off till next week.

It is strange that he(should)have acted toward his parents
like that.(act 发生在主句谓语动词be之前时,要用should have+过去分词)

注意: 以上句式也可以用于陈述语气。 It's strange that he didn't come yesterday. It's a pity that you can't dance.

3.用于表语从句和同位语从句中

在 suggestion , proposal , order , plan , idea , request ,
advice 等名词后的表语从句和同位语从句中要用虚拟语 气。其构成是“should+动词原形”。如: My idea is that we should think it over before accepting it. We all agreed to his suggestion that we should go to Dalian

for sightseeing.

四、虚拟语气在状语从句中的运用

1.在as if/though 引导的方式状语和even if/though 引导的让
步状语从句中:一般过去时表示与现在或将来事实相 反;过去完成时表示与过去事实相反。 She loves the boy as if he were her own son. 她喜欢这个男孩子就好像他是她的亲生儿子一样。

2.在in order that,so that引导的目的状语从句中,经常用 “could/might/may/can+动词原形”表示虚拟语气。

He got up early so that he could catch the first bus.
他早起为的是能够赶上第一班公共汽车。 3.在in case that,for fear that 引导的目的状语从句中,经 常用“should+动词原形”表示虚拟语气,should不可省 略。

She puts a coat over the baby for fear that he should catch
a cold. 她把一个大衣盖在小孩身上,以免他着凉。

4.if only 后面需要用虚拟语气:一般过去时表示与现在或
将来事实相反;过去完成时表示与过去事实相反。 If only I could operate the computer. 要是我会操作电脑该多好。 If only he had known it.要是他知道这件事该多好。

五、虚拟语气在定语从句中的运用 It is high/about time that... 句 型 中 一 般 用 过 去 时 或 “ should +动词原形” ( 但 should 不可省略 ) 表示虚拟语 气,前者更为常用。 It's high/about time that children went/should go to

school.到了孩子们上学的时候了。

Ⅰ.完成句子
1.My suggestion is that 排运动会的日期). 2. (要不是他的帮助),I couldn't have finished (我们根据天气情况来安

the work on time.

3.Without/But for your help,
不会安全到家的). 4.If I were you,I 短语). 5.

(我是

(更加注意英语的习语和

(如果他九点动身的话),he ought to have been

in London by eleven o'clock.

答案

1.we (should) fix the date for the sports meeting 2.Had it not been for his help 4.would pay more 5.If he had started

depending on the weather

3.I couldn't have returned home safely attention to English idioms and phrases at 9:00

Ⅱ.单项填空 1.What would have happened, bank? as far as the river

A.Bob had walked farther
B.if Bob should walke farther C.had Bob walked farther D.if Bob walked farther

解析

考查虚拟语气的特殊用法。在虚拟语气中,如果把条

件状语从句中的if省略,可以把助动词had,were或者should 提到句子的前面,形成部分倒装形式。根据前面的谓语形式

可知,此题表达的是与过去相反的虚拟语气,在条件句中的
应用。 答案 C

2.It's high time that we A.go;have C.go;should have

home and B.went;had

supper now.

D.went;to have

解析

该句型中的谓语动词用 “ 过去式 ” 或 “ should +

动词原形”,should不能省略。 答案 B

3.I was really anxious about you.You word. A.mustn't leave C.couldn't have left

home without a

B.shouldn't have left D.needn't leave

解析

你不应该一句话不说就离家出走的,但是你却这样

做了,用虚拟语气。 答案 B

4.He hesitated for a moment before he kicked the ball,
otherwise he A.had scored C.would score 解析 a goal. B.scored D.would have scored

根据语境可知,他没有进球得分,所以要选的应

该是虚拟语气。根据前面的动词可知,表示的是与过去
相反的虚拟语气,所以主句要用情态动词+have done 形 式。 答案 D

5.I wish I

the book yesterday,but I was too busy.

A.had finished to write B.had finished writing C.could have finished to write D.might finish writing

解析

wish 后的宾语从句要用虚拟语气,由 yesterday 可

知是对过去的虚拟,所以用had done表示,且finish后跟 v.?ing形式,故选B项。 答案 B

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