最新人教版高中英语选修十精品课件:Unit 4 Learning efficiently-Grammar课件 新人教选修10_图文

Grammar
The Subjunctive Mood

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The Subjunctive Mood

1. If I were Andy Lou, I would be in Hong Kong now. hypotheses

2. I wish I were a millionaire. wishes

3. We suggest that everyone should help the AIDS patients. suggestion

When to use the Subjunctive Mood in

English?

虚拟语气

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The definition of the Subjunctive Mood

虚拟语气是一种特殊的动词形式 (verb structure), 用来表示说话人所说 的话不是一个事实 (fact),而只是一种 假设(hypotheses )愿望(wishes)、建议 (suggestion) 或怀疑(doubt)等等。

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虚拟语气应该注意的几点:

1. 虚拟语气在条件句中 1) “表示不太可能出现的情况”, 条
件从句一般用过去时,主句用 would do, should do 或 might
/could do;

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2) 表示“本可能发生却未发生的事 情”, 条件从句用过去完成时, 主句 用would have done, should have done, might / could have done.

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? The old men would find it difficult to get a job if they left the farm.
? I should be surprised if it was less than five pounds.
? If I frightened those birds, they might fly off and I would never see them again.
? If I were you, I would accept the offer.

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? If I were asked to define my mood, I’d

say “bored”.

? If he had taken his doctor’s advice, he

might not have died so soon.

? If he had realized that, he would have

run away while there was still time.

? If she had not married, she could have

become special in the filed.

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2. 虚拟语气在条件句也可用来表示“将 来不太可能出现的情况”, 条件从句用 should do, were to do或一般过去时, 主 句用 would do, should do, could/might do.

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? If it should rain tomorrow, the sports

meet would have to be put off.

? I could see the surface of the moon

with my own eyes if I were to go to

the moon some day.

? What would you do if he failed to

come tomorrow?

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注意: 含有 should 的条件句, 主句可以 用一般现在时或一般将来时. 例如:
If there should be another flood, what shall we do?
Ask her to leave a message if she should come.

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3. 在正式英语文体中, if 从句中的第 一个动词如果是should, were 或 had, 可将此动词置于句首, 替代 if.例如:

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? Were it all true, it would still not excuse their actions.
? Had the captain been more careful, his ship would not have sunk.
? Should any visitors come, I would say you are not here.

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4. if only 和 suppose (supposing), 也可 以引导虚拟从句.

If only I had more time, I could go

there to help them.

Supposing it were fine tomorrow,

would you go climbing the mountain

with us?

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5. If it were not / had not been for… 也

是常见的虚拟句型, 意思是“要不

是……” 例如:

If it had not been for your help, we

would not have achieved so much in

our work.

If it were not for the wise decision, we

could not be living a happy life.

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6. 虚拟语气用于I wish… 的宾语从句 中: 表示现在时间, 动词用一般过去时 和过去进行时 (be动词用were /was)。 表示过去时间, 动词用过去完成时和 过去完成进行时。 表示将来时间, 动 词用 would/ could 等+动词原形。

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? I wish I knew how to operate this

computer.

? I wish he weren’t so lazy.

? I do wish everything would be as

quiet as before.

? I wish we hadn’t been working

overtime yesterday.

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注意: 这里I wish… 所表达的意思与 if

only…差不多。以上的句子都可

以用if only 来代替 I wish 例如:

If only I knew how to operate this

computer.

If only we hadn’t been working

overtime yesterday.

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7. It’s (about/high) time +从句,表示 “该做而未做的事”, 是一种婉转的建 议, 从句中的动词用一般过去时。例如:

It is high time we began to work.

We’ve enjoyed the evening, but it’s time

we went home.

It’s about time the boy learned to behave

himself.

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8. 表示“要求、建议、命令” 等动词
demand, require, suggest, insist, advise, order 等后接宾语从句时, 从 句谓语动词一般用虚拟语气, 即 should + 动词原形 (do/be done), should 也可以省略.例如:

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? He insisted that John (should) do the job.
? We suggest that the meeting (should) not be postponed.
? The union demanded that the wages (should) be raised by 20%.

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常用的这类动词是: ask (要求), advise

(建议), command(命令), decide(决定),

demand(要求), insist(坚持), move(提

议), order(命令), propose(提出),

require(要求), request(请求), suggest

(建议), urge(主张) 如果这些动词不是

表示“要求、建议、命令”等意思时,

这时宾语从句一般不用虚拟语气。

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例如: He insisted that I was wrong. (这
儿 insist 意思是“坚持认为”) The expression on her face suggests
that she knows the secret. (这儿 suggest 意思是“表明”)

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虚拟语气在条件句中除了表示与将来、现在

及过去事实相反的情况以外,还需要注意以

下几点:

一、 错综时间条件句

当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的

行为所发生的时间不一致时,动词的形式要

依据它所表示的时间来调整。如:

If you had taken the medicine yesterday,

you might be well now.

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(条件句与过去事实相反,主句与现在事实 相反。)
如果你昨天吃了药, 你的病今天也许就好 了。
二、省略if的条件句 如果if条件句中有were,had,should时, 可省略if,把were,had,should放在主语前。 这种结构主要用于书面语中。如:

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Were it necessary (= If it were necessary), I might resign.
如果需要的话,我可以辞职。
Had you informed me earlier (= If you had informed me earlier), I wouldn’t have signed the contract.
要是你早点告诉我的话,我是不会签那 份合同的。

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三、含蓄条件句 有些句子虽不含条件句,但意思和含条
件句的句子差不多,这种句子叫含蓄条件句, 这种句子中也用虚拟语气。含蓄条件句的 “暗含”之意一般用三种方法来表达: 1. 条件暗含在短语中。如: Without air, there would be no living things.
没有空气,就没有生命。

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(条件暗含在介词短语Without air中) But for your help, I couldn’t have made so much progress. 要不是你的帮助,我不可能取得这么大 的进步。 (条件暗含在介词短语But for your help中) This same thing, happening in wartime, would result in disaster.

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同样的事,如果发生在战时,就会酿

成大祸。

(条件暗含在分词短语happening in

wartime中)

2. 条件暗含在上下文中。如:

You might stay here forever.

你可以永远待在这儿。

(可能暗含if you wanted to)

They would have succeeded.

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他们本来是会成功的。 (可能暗含if they had kept trying) 3. 在不少情况下,虚拟式已经成为习惯 说法,很难找出其暗含的条件。如:

I wouldn’t have dreamed of it.

这是我做梦也不会想到的。

四、省去主句的非真实条件句

非真实条件句如果省去主句,通常表

示一种不可能实现的愿望。

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这种条件句常用if only来引导。如: If only I had known where to find you just now. 刚才我要是知道去哪儿找你就好了。

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1. If he had not lost his money, he ___

the piano last week.

A. would buy B. had bought

C. bought D. could have bought

2. If we were to be 200 years old, we

___ everything.

A. will change B. can change

C. could change D. changed

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3. If you __ that film last night, you would not be so sleepy now. A. didn’t see B. haven’t seen C. wouldn’t seen D. hadn’t seen

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4. You are late. If you __ a little minutes earlier, you __ him. A. came, would meet B. had come, would have met C. came, would have met D. were to come, would meet

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5. But for the storm, we __ a pleasant

journey.

A. should have B. have had

C. would have D. should have had

6. ___ to do the work, I should do it some

other day.

A. If were I

B. I were

C. Were I

D. Was I

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7. Without the computer, the problem __ in such a short time. A. couldn’t be solved B. wouldn’t have solved C. couldn’t have been solved

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8. Without electricity, human life __ quite different today. A. will be B. were to be C. would be D. is

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9. “You are very selfish. It’s high time

you _______ you are not the most

important person in the world,”

Edgar said to his boss angrily.

A. have realized B. realized

C. realize

D. should realize

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10. I wish I ____ longer this morning, but I had to get up and come to class. A. could have slept B. slept C. might have slept D. have slept

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根据括号中的提示翻译下列句子。

1. 如果你接受了我的建议,你现在就好

了。(错综时间条件句)

If you had taken my advice, you would

be all right now.

2. 如果你提前告诉我,我就去机场接他

了。(省略if的条件句)

Had you told me in advance, I would

have met him at the airport.

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3.要不是中国共产党,他三十年前就 饿死了。(含蓄条件句)

But for the Communist Party of China, he

would have died of hunger 30 years ago. 4.要是我像你一样知道怎么操作电脑 就好了。(省去主句的非真实条件句)

If only I knew how to operate a computer

as you do.

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