人教版高中英语选修10课件 Unit 4 Learning efficiently Grammar 课件_图文
Unit 4 Learning efficiently Grammar 课件
The Subjunctive Mood
1. If I were Andy Lou, I would be in Hong Kong now. hypotheses 2. I wish I were a millionaire. wishes
3. We suggest that everyone should help the AIDS patients. suggestion When to use the Subjunctive Mood in English? 虚拟语气
The definition of the Subjunctive Mood 虚拟语气是一种特殊的动词形式
(verb structure), 用来表示说话人所说
1) “表示不太可能出现的情况”, 条
would do, should do 或 might
2) 表示“本可能发生却未发生的事 情”, 条件从句用过去完成时, 主句 用would have done, should have done, might / could have done.
? The old men would find it difficult to get a job if they left the farm. ? I should be surprised if it was less than five pounds. ? If I frightened those birds, they might fly off and I would never see them again. ? If I were you, I would accept the offer.
? If I were asked to define my mood, I’d say “bored”. ? If he had taken his doctor’s advice, he might not have died so soon. ? If he had realized that, he would have run away while there was still time. ? If she had not married, she could have become special in the filed.
2. 虚拟语气在条件句也可用来表示“将 来不太可能出现的情况”, 条件从句用 should do, were to do或一般过去时, 主 句用 would do, should do, could/might do.
? If it should rain tomorrow, the sports
meet would have to be put off.
? I could see the surface of the moon
with my own eyes if I were to go to
the moon some day.
? What would you do if he failed to
注意: 含有 should 的条件句, 主句可以
? If there should be another flood, what
shall we do?
? Ask her to leave a message if she
3. 在正式英语文体中, if 从句中的第 一个动词如果是should, were 或 had, 可将此动词置于句首, 替代 if．例如：
? Were it all true, it would still not excuse their actions. ? Had the captain been more careful, his ship would not have sunk. ? Should any visitors come, I would say you are not here.
4. if only 和 suppose (supposing), 也可 以引导虚拟从句． ? If only I had more time, I could go there to help them.
? Supposing it were fine tomorrow,
would you go climbing the mountain
5. If it were not / had not been for… 也 是常见的虚拟句型, 意思是“要不 是……” 例如: ? If it had not been for your help, we would not have achieved so much in our work. ? If it were not for the wise decision, we could not be living a happy life.
6. 虚拟语气用于I wish…
中: 表示现在时间, 动词用一般过去时
和过去进行时 (be动词用were /was)。
过去完成进行时。 表示将来时间, 动
词用 would/ could 等+动词原形。
? I wish I knew how to operate this
? I wish he weren’t so lazy.
? I do wish everything would be as
quiet as before.
? I wish we hadn’t been working
注意: 这里I wish… 所表达的意思与 if only…差不多。以上的句子都可 以用if only 来代替 I wish 例如:
? If only I knew how to operate this
? If only we hadn’t been working
7. It’s (about/high) time +从句，表示 “该做而未做的事”, 是一种婉转的建 议, 从句中的动词用一般过去时。例如： ? It is high time we began to work. ? We’ve enjoyed the evening, but it’s time we went home. ? It’s about time the boy learned to behave himself.
8. 表示“要求、建议、命令” 等动词
demand, require, suggest, insist,
advise, order 等后接宾语从句时, 从
句谓语动词一般用虚拟语气, 即 should + 动词原形 (do/be done), should 也可以省略．例如：
? He insisted that John (should) do
? We suggest that the meeting
(should) not be postponed.
? The union demanded that the
wages (should) be raised by 20%.
常用的这类动词是: ask (要求), advise (建议), command(命令), decide(决定), demand(要求), insist(坚持), move(提 议), order(命令), propose(提出), require(要求), request(请求), suggest (建议), urge(主张) 如果这些动词不是 表示“要求、建议、命令”等意思时, 这时宾语从句一般不用虚拟语气。
例如： ? He insisted that I was wrong. (这儿 insist 意思是“坚持认为”） ? The expression on her face suggests that she knows the secret. (这儿 suggest 意思是“表明”）
虚拟语气在条件句中除了表示与将来、现在 及过去事实相反的情况以外，还需要注意以 下几点： 一、 错综时间条件句 当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的 行为所发生的时间不一致时，动词的形式要 依据它所表示的时间来调整。如： If you had taken the medicine yesterday, you might be well now.
(条件句与过去事实相反,主句与现在事实 相反。) 如果你昨天吃了药, 你的病今天也许就好 了。 二、省略if的条件句 如果if条件句中有were，had，should时， 可省略if，把were，had，should放在主语前。 这种结构主要用于书面语中。如：
Were it necessary (= If it were necessary), I might resign． 如果需要的话，我可以辞职。 Had you informed me earlier (= If you had informed me earlier), I wouldn’t have signed the contract. 要是你早点告诉我的话，我是不会签那 份合同的。
三、含蓄条件句 有些句子虽不含条件句，但意思和含条 件句的句子差不多，这种句子叫含蓄条件句， 这种句子中也用虚拟语气。含蓄条件句的 “暗含”之意一般用三种方法来表达： 1. 条件暗含在短语中。如： Without air, there would be no living things. 没有空气，就没有生命。
（条件暗含在介词短语Without air中） But for your help, I couldn’t have made so much progress. 要不是你的帮助，我不可能取得这么大 的进步。 （条件暗含在介词短语But for your help中） This same thing, happening in wartime, would result in disaster.
同样的事，如果发生在战时，就会酿 成大祸。 （条件暗含在分词短语happening in wartime中） 2. 条件暗含在上下文中。如： You might stay here forever. 你可以永远待在这儿。 （可能暗含if you wanted to） They would have succeeded.
他们本来是会成功的。 （可能暗含if they had kept trying） 3. 在不少情况下，虚拟式已经成为习惯 说法，很难找出其暗含的条件。如： I wouldn’t have dreamed of it. 这是我做梦也不会想到的。 四、省去主句的非真实条件句 非真实条件句如果省去主句，通常表 示一种不可能实现的愿望。
这种条件句常用if only来引导。如： If only I had known where to find you just now. 刚才我要是知道去哪儿找你就好了。
1. If he had not lost his money, he ___ the piano last week. A. would buy B. had bought C. bought D. could have bought 2. If we were to be 200 years old, we ___ everything. A. will change B. can change C. could change D. changed
3. If you __ that film last night,
you would not be so sleepy now.
A. didn’t see
B. haven’t seen
C. wouldn’t seen
D. hadn’t seen
4. You are late. If you __ a little
minutes earlier, you __ him.
A. came, would meet
B. had come, would have met
C. came, would have met
D. were to come, would meet
5. But for the storm, we __ a pleasant journey. A. should have B. have had C. would have D. should have had 6. ___ to do the work, I should do it some other day. A. If were I B. I were C. Were I D. Was I
7. Without the computer, the problem
__ in such a short time.
A. couldn’t be solved
B. wouldn’t have solved
C. couldn’t have been solved
8. Without electricity, human life __ quite different today. A. will be B. were to be C. would be D. is
9. “You are very selfish. It’s high time
you _______ you are not the most important person in the world,” Edgar said to his boss angrily. A. have realized B. realized C. realize D. should realize
10. I wish I ____ longer this morning,
but I had to get up and come to
A. could have slept B. slept
C. might have slept D. have slept
根据括号中的提示翻译下列句子。 1. 如果你接受了我的建议，你现在就好 了。（错综时间条件句） If you had taken my advice, you would be all right now. 2. 如果你提前告诉我，我就去机场接他 了。（省略if的条件句） Had you told me in advance, I would have met him at the airport.
3．要不是中国共产党，他三十年前就 饿死了。（含蓄条件句） But for the Communist Party of China, he would have died of hunger 30 years ago. 4．要是我像你一样知道怎么操作电脑 就好了。（省去主句的非真实条件句） If only I knew how to operate a computer as you do.