2013年高考英语(人教版)要点梳理+重点突破：选修8 Unit 1 A land of diversity
选修 8 Unit 1 A land of diversity
要 点 梳 理
●重点单词 1．distinct adj.清晰的；明显的；明确的→distinction n．差别；区分；卓著 2．means n．手段；方法 3．majority n．大多数；大半→minority n．少数 4．despite prep.尽管；不管 5．elect vt.选择；决定做某事；选举某人→election n．选举
6．percentage n．百分比；百分率 7．boom n．(人口、贸易的)繁荣 vi.处于经济迅速发展时期 8．applicant n．申请人→apply v．申请→application n．申请 9．customs n．海关；关税；进口税
10．occur vi.发生；出现 11．indicate vt.指出；标示；表明；暗示→indication n．迹象→indicator n．指示器，指示物 12．luggage n．行李 13．apparent adj.显而易见的；显然的；表面上的→apparently adv.明显地 14．slip vi.滑动；滑行；滑跤 n．滑动；滑倒
15．hire vt. & n．租用，雇用 16．nowhere adv.无处；到处都无 17．punishment n．处罚；惩罚→punish v．惩罚；处罚 18．justice n．正义；公平→injustice(反义词)
●重点短语 1．live on 继续存在；继续生存 2．by means of... 用??办法；借助?? 3．make a life 习惯于新的生活方式、工作等 4．keep up 坚持；维持；沿袭(风俗、传统等)
5．back to back 背靠背
6．team up with 与??合作或一起工作 7．mark out 画线；标出??界线 8．take in 包括；吸收 9．a great/good many 许多；很多 10．apply for 申请；请示得到
●重点句型 1．However, it is likely that Native Americans were living in California at least fifteen thousand years ago.然而，美洲土著人很可能在 15 000 年前就在加州生活着。
2．Two centuries later, the Spanish had settled in most parts of South America and along the northwest coast of what we now call the United States.二百年后， 西班牙人定居在南美洲大多数 地区以及现在美国的西北沿海。 3． That is why today over 40% of Californians speak Spanish as a first or second language.这就是 今天有超过 40%的加利福尼亚人把西班牙语作为第一或第二语言的原因。
4．Although Chinese immigrants began to arrive during the Gold Rush Period, it was the building of the rail network from the west to the east coast that brought even larger numbers to California in the 1860s. 虽然中国移民在淘金热时期就开始到来了， 但是更大批量的移民却是在 19 世纪 60 年代为了 修建贯穿美国东西海岸的铁路而来的。
5．It is believed that before long the mix of nationalities will be so great that there will be no distinct major racial or cultural groups, but simply a mixture of many races and cultures. 人们相信过不了多久国籍间相混的程度将如此大以至于不再有明显的种族或文化团体， 而仅 仅是一个种族和文化的混合体。
●高考范文 (2008·江苏) 实现有效的沟通，建立良好的人际关系，不仅要善于言表，更要学会倾听。请你根据下表中 所提供的信息，写一篇题为 Being a Good Listener 的英文演讲稿。
注意：1.对所给要点逐一陈述，适当发挥，不要简单翻译。 2．词数：150 左右。开头和结 尾已经写好，不计入总词数。 3．演讲稿中不得提及考生所在学校及本人姓名。
Good afternoon, everyone! The topic of my speech today is “ Being a Good Listener” _____________________________________________________________________ ． ___ Thank you for your listening!
[范文] Good_afternoon,_everyone! The_topic_of_my_speech_today_is_“Being_a_Good_Listener” ． Good listening can always show respect, promote understanding, and improve interpersonal relationship.
Many people suggest that parents should listen more to their children, so they will understand them better, and find it easy to narrow the generation gap; teachers should listen more to their students, then they can meet their needs better, and place themselves in a good relationship with their students; students should listen more to their classmates, thus they will help and learn from each other, and a friendship is likely to be formed.
What I want to stress is that each of us should listen more to others. Show your respect and never stop others till they finish their talk; show you are interested by a supportive silence or a knowing smile; be open－minded to different opinions even though you don't like them. In a word, good listening can really enable us to get closer to each other.
考 点 探 究
Ⅰ.词汇短语过关 1．means n. 方法；手段 by all means 务必；一定；当然可以 by any means 无论如何 by no means 决不(用于句首时引起部分倒装) by this/these means 用这种/这些办法 by means of 依靠??方法，借助??手段
[即学即练 1](1)Taking a plane is ________________________ getting there. 去那儿最快的方式是坐飞机。 (2)All possible means ______ been tried. ＝Every possible means ______ been tried. 所有(每一种)可能的办法都已经试过了。 the quickest means of have has
(3)This plan must be realized __________________. 这个计划必须完成。 (4)Thoughts are expressed __________________ words. 思想靠语言来表达。 (5)By no means __________________ left alone. 绝不能把他单独留下。 by all means by means of should he be
提示： (1)means 表示 “方法、 方式、 手段” 其单复数同形。 means 做主语且有 every, each ， 当 等词修饰时，谓语动词用单数；有 some, several, many, few, all 等词修饰时，谓语动词用复 数。 (2)by this means 强调的是“有条理的办事方法” this way 强调的是“用简便的方法” ；in ，in 有时候可以省略；with this method 强调的是“用已形成的系统的、理论的方法” 。
2．majority n. 大多数，大半
the majority 大多数(其做主语表整体时，谓语用单数； 若表成员情况时，谓语用复数。) the majority of＋n. [U]＋单数谓语 the majority of＋n. [pl.]＋复数谓语 be in the majority 占大多数 by/with a majority of 以大多数??赢得??
[即学即练 2](1)____________ were present at the meeting.大多数人出席了会议。 (2)__________________ the people seem to prefer watching games to playing games. 大部分人似乎喜欢观看比赛胜于参加比赛。 The majority The majority of
(3)He was elected by ________________________ 765. 他以 765 票的多数票当选。 a large majority of
3．occur vi. 发生，出现(occurred; occurring) occurrence n. 发生；出现 sth. occurs to sb. sth. strikes sb. sth. comes to sb. It occurs to sb. to do sth. It occurs to sb. that－clause It strikes sb. that－clause 某人想起/想到??
[即学即练 3](1)The same theme ______ in many of his works.同一个主题在他的许多作品中都 有。 (2)The accident _______________ at five o‘clock. 事故发生在五点钟。 (3)An idea ____________ me. 我想到一个主意。 (4)______________ ________________ to ask for help. 她没想到请别人帮忙。 occurs occurred occurred to It didn’t occur to her
(5)___________________________________ she would refuse his invitation. 他没有想到她会拒绝他的邀请。 It didn’t occur to him that
4．indicate vt. 指出；标示；表明；暗示 indication n. 指示；象征；预示 indicate sth. to sb. 向某人指出/暗示某物 indicate that... 示意；表明 indication of doing sth. ??的迹象
[即学即练 4](1)Research __________ that men are easier to give up smoking than women. 研究表明，男人比女人更容易戒烟。 (2)A high fever usually ___________ severe illness. 高烧通常表明生了重病。 indicates indicates
(3)Snow ____________ the coming of winter. 雪象征着冬天的来到。 indicates
5．make a life 习惯于新的生活方式、工作等；谋生 come to life 变得活跃起来 bring sb./sth. to life 使某物更生动；使某人/某物苏醒 lay down one’s life for sb. /sth.为??牺牲生命，献身 lead/live a．..life 过着??的生活 make/earn a living 谋生
[即学即练 5](1)They emigrated to Australia to ____________ __________________. 他们移民到澳大利亚，开始全新的生活。 (2)Her songs ______ our history ____________ again. 她的歌曲又一次重现了我们的历史。 make a new life there bring to life
(3)Joanne __________________ as a dancer in a nightclub.乔安妮在夜总会当舞女，以此谋生。
(4)The match finally __________________ in the second half.比赛在下半场终于精彩起来。 (5)They were prepared to ________________________ for their country.他们准备为国捐躯。 earns a living came to life lay down their lives
6．keep up 保持，维持；使不下降；继续 keep up with 赶上，不落后 keep out (of)不准入内 keep off 离开，避开 keep back 阻止；扣留 keep on 继续
[即学即练 6](1)We sang as we marched to _______________________. 我们一面行进一面唱歌以保持高昂的情绪。 (2)We should ______________________________. 我们应该沿袭我们的优良传统。 keep our spirits up keep up our good traditions
(3)The shortage of supplies is ________________________.供应不足使价格保持紧挺。 (4)I don’t think I can __________________ any longer. 我认为这事我再也坚持不下去了。 (5)Dave couldn’t __________________ the rest of his class.戴夫跟不上班里的其他同学。 keeping the price up keep this up keep up with
(6)____________ the grass！勿踏草坪！ (7)She was unable to ____________ her tears. 她无法忍受眼泪。 Keep off keep back
7．take in 欺骗；留??住宿；理解；领悟；吸入；改小(衣服)；包括；包含
[即学即练 7] 写出下列句中 take in 的意思。
(1)There she was taken in by an aged couple. _____________ 收留
(2)Don't let yourself be taken in by his tricks. ______________________ (3)The students found it easy to take in what their teacher had taught. ____________________ 欺骗 领悟
(4)The dress was too big, so I took it in. _____________________________ (5)The tour takes in six European capitals. ________________________ 改小(衣服) 包括
拓展：take away 拿走；使离开；消除(病痛等) take down 记下来；拆掉 take for (错)当做；(误)以为 take off 起飞，匆匆离去；脱下 take on 呈现；雇用 take over 接收，接管，取代 take to 喜欢；养成??的习惯 take up 占去，占据；开始；从事
8．a good/great many 许多，很多 a good/great many＝many＝a great number of＋n. (pl.) a great many of them (us) (代词) the (these, those)＋n. (pl.) many a＋单数可数名词＋单数谓语动词
[即学即练 8](1)Tom found that there were __________________________ people already there. 汤姆发现那儿已经有很多人了。 (2)It seems that ________________________ them are out of work now. 似乎他们中的许多人 现在失业了。
a great/good many a great/good many of
(3)Many a student ______ this song. 很多学生喜欢这首歌。 likes
Ⅱ.重点句型详解 1．However, it_is_likely_that Native Americans were living in California at least fifteen thousand years ago. 然而，美洲土著人有可能在至少 15 000 年前就在加州生活着。
本句式中 it 为形式主语，真正的主语为 that 从句。 It is likely that... ??是可能的。此句型可转化为：Sb./Sth. be likely to do... 某人/物可能干某 事。 ①She‘s very likely to ring me tonight. ＝It’s likely that she will ring me tonight. 她今晚很可能给我打电话。 ②It‘s likely that it will snow tonight. ＝It is likely to snow tonight. 今天晚上可能下雪。
[即境活用 1] Ronaldo was ______ to win the 100－meter hurdle race, but he fell to the ground and missed the chance. A．possible B．probable C．likely D．maybe 答案：C
解析：当 possible 或 probable 做表语时，主语只能是事物或代词 it；而 likely 做表语时， 主语可以是人，也可以是物。maybe 是副词，只能做状语，不能做表语。
2．It_is_believed_that before long the mix of nationalities will be so great that there will be no distinct major racial or cultural groups, but simply a mixture of many races and cultures. 过不了多久国籍间相混的程度将如此大以至于不再有明显的种族或文化团体， 而仅仅是一个 种族和文化的混合体。
本句用的句型是 It is believed that－clause。it 是形式主语，真正的主语是后面的 that－
clause。 类似的结构还有：It be said/known/agreed/thought/supposed/reported＋that－clause. 此句型可转化成： (1)People say/know/agree/think/suppose/report＋that－clause. (2)Sb./Sth. be said/known/agreed/thought/supposed/reported＋to do.
①It is believed that Mr Smith is innocent.＝Mr Smith is believed to be innocent. 人们认为史密斯先生是无辜的。 ②It is believed that Professor Johnson has finished his second novel.＝Professor Johnson is believed to have finished his second novel. 人们相信约翰逊教授已完成了他的第二部小说。
[即境活用 2] The lake by the village is believed ______ a number of victims in the past 3 years. A．to claim B．to have claimed C．claiming D．being claiming 答案：B
解析：句意为“人们相信村子旁边的湖泊在过去的三年里已要了许多人的命” 。在这种形式 中，believe 后面不能跟 v．－ing 形式；由 in the past 3 years 可知，事情是已发生的，因 此，需用不定式的完成式与之相对应。
易 错 点 拨
1. means/manner/method/approach/way (1)means 表示“方法” “手段” “工具” “财产” ，与 of 搭配。 (2)manner 表示“方式” “方法” ，指个人喜欢采用的方式，与 of 搭配。
(3)method 指做某事的具体步骤或程序，也指系统的、抽象概念的原理，与 of 搭配。 (4)way 是最通用的词，也是最不正式的词。本义是“通路” ，引申作“方式” “方法”讲，含 义很广，与 of 或动词不定式搭配。 (5)approach 也有“方法，步骤，途径”的意思。它侧重指待人接物或思考问题的方式。与 toward 或 to 搭配。
[应用 1] (1)This book provides a good _____________ to psychology. 本书提供研究心理学的良好门径。 (2)The _____________ of their meeting makes a good story. 他们相见的方式似乎有些传奇色彩。
(3)The quickest ___________ of travel is by plane. 最快的旅行方式是乘飞机。 (4)In this _____________ over several days, the artist and his mouse became friends. 就这样过了几天，这位艺术家和他的老鼠成了好朋友。 (5)He is a man of ________.他是个有条理的人。 means way method
2. occur/happen/take place (1)occur 用法较正式，指偶然发生的或未按计划发生的事情，可用于具体的或抽象的事物。 (2)happen 发生；巧遇，含义广泛，指具体客观事物的发生，尤指偶然事件的发生，后可接 不定式，也可接介词 to，常用在 It happens/happened that...结构中。 (3)take place 发生；举行，主要用来指预先计划好的事情。
[应用 2] (1)It ____________ that they were all there. 正好他们都在那儿。 (2)Great changes have ______________ in our school. 我们学校发生了巨大的变化。 (3)The May 4th Movement _____________ in 1919. 五四运动发生在 1919 年。 happened taken place occurred
(4)The conference _________ in the Great Hall of the People.会议在人民大会堂举行。 (5)I ______________ to meet her in the street yesterday. 我昨天碰巧在街上遇到她。 took place happened
3. hire/employ (1)hire 一般指短期的“雇用” ，它侧重指为工资(wage)而工作。 (2)employ 指“公司，商店”等的长期“雇用” ，或指相对固定的工作，它侧重于服务方面。
[应用 3] (1)The firm _____________ more than 100 people. 这家公司雇用 100 多名职工。 (2)He __________ a man to look after his garden. 他雇了一个人来照料他的花园。 employs hired
高 效 作 业
Ⅰ.单词拼写 1．The Taiwan S_______ separates Taiwan Island from the mainland. 2．Only a few of them thought highly of the plan. The m_________ were against it. 3．Now in China, an increasing p___________ of the population have their own cars. 4．There were 1 200 a_______________ for the job. Strait majority percentage applicants
5．My father h______ three men to help him with the harvest last summer. 6．He has twenty ______ (牛) on his farm. 7．He has six pieces of ______ (行李)． 8．____________(显然)，he has lost interest in physics. 9．Now and then some _________ (海鸥) came into sight. 10．The government announced addition rules on ___________________ (移民)． hired cattle luggage Apparently seagulls immigration
Ⅱ .单项选择 1．—Do you think we should put an ad in the paper for the lost child? —Yes, ______. A．that's all right B．by all means C．it just depends D．never mind 答案：B 解析：由 Yes 可知表示同意，选 by all means “务必；一定；当然可以” 。A、D 项表示“没
关系” 项“看情况而定” ；C 。
2．—What is boy's favorite sport? —______ of boys like playing football. A．None B．The most C．The majority D．Every 答案：C 解析： majority of boys＝most boys＝most of the boys “大多数男孩子” none 不符合题意； the 。 every 不能接 of 短语。
3．(2007 年辽宁)Don't be ______by products promising to make you lose weight quickly. A．taken off B．taken out C．taken away D．taken in 答案：D 解析：A.起飞，脱掉，(事业)腾飞；B.拿出；C.带走；D.欺骗。由句意可知 D 项正确。
4．To travel to the United States, you must first apply ______ the American Embassy ______ your visa. A．for; to B．to; for C．for; for D．to; to 答案：B 解析：考查 apply 短语的用法。apply to sb. for sth.向某人申请某物。句意为：要去美国旅行， 你要首先向美国大使馆申请签证。
5．The agreement indicates that the two companies will ______ with each other again. A．team up B．turn up C．look up D．pick up 答案：A 解析：考查动词短语辨析。A 项表示“与??合作” ，符合句意。B 项表示“出现；到达” ； C 项表示“向上看；查寻” 项表示“捡起，接收” ；D ，均不合题意。
6．It is very ______ that, in many schools, the students are going to spend less time in doing homework than they used to. A．possibly B．probably C．lovely D．likely 答案：D 解析：句意为：在很多学校学生做作业的时间可能将比原来少。用 it is likely that 句型，其 他三个词不用于这个结构。
7．She managed to climb out of the car, ______ unhurt. A．apparently B．occasionally C．freely D．peacefully 答案：A 解析：考查副词。A.看起来，显然；B.偶尔；C.无拘无束地；D.peacefully 和平地。由题意， 选 A。
8．(2010·黄冈中学)－Sunny day, isn't it? －Let's hope the sunny weather ______ for Saturday's tennis match. A．carries on B．moves on C．keeps up D．goes up 答案：C 解析：考查动词短语的辨析。keep up 保持，继续，符合语意“希望好天气保持到星期六的 网球比赛” 。carry on 继承；move on 继续进行；go up 上升，增长。
9． (2010·临川一中)If you don't ______ the advice of your teachers, you'll regret it sooner or later. A．regard B．enjoy C．value D．think 答案：C 解析：考查动词辨析。如果你不重视老师的建议，迟早会后悔的，用 value 表示“重视” 。 其他动词的含义不符合语意。
10．______ the students in our school go to college in their teens. A．A good many B．A great many of C．A great deal of D．A great deal 答案：B 解析：a good many students 许多学生。a great deal of 修饰不可数名词。
11．It suddenly ______ to the detective that the millionaire was probably murdered by his own daughter. A．happened B．occurred C．thought D．took place 答案：B 解析： 句意为 “那个侦探突然想到那个百万富翁可能是被自己女儿杀死的” It occurred to sb. 。 that... “某人想到??” 。
12．Many streets in this city have been ______ for cultural protection.
A．stretched out B．marked out C．left out D．stood out 答案：B 解析：mark out 标志；记出来。stretch out 伸出； leave out 丢、漏；stand out 脱颖而出， 显眼。
13．The restlessness of animals ______ a possible occurrence of an earthquake. A．expressed B．impressed C．indicated D．interpreted 答案：C 解析：indicate 预示；暗示。句意为“动物们不休息预示可能发生地震” 。
14．He is supposed ______ to the meeting, but he didn't. A．to come B．to have come C．coming D．having come 答案：B 解析： 考查 sb./sth. is supposed to do 结构， 且句中表示 “本该到而未到” 故用 to have come。 ，
15．______ sometimes keeps her awake at night ______ Tom is getting more and more quiet at home. A．That; which B．It; that C．Whether; what D．What; that 答案：B 解析：考查名词性从句。句中 it 是形式主语，真正的主语为 that 从句。
Ⅲ .阅读理解 A Beijing (Oct. 15)－China is going green. In order to reduce air pollution and oil shortages, carmakers have announced their plans to develop hybrid vehicles(混合燃料汽车) for the Chinese market.
The first China made Toyota's hybrid car Prius hit the road last week. Let's have a look at the new car. Any vehicle is a hybrid when it combines two or more sources of power. Hybrid cars use an electric motor withrechargeable batteries(充电电池) and a gasoline engine.
A hybrid car has a smaller than traditional gasoline engine and an electric motor. The gasoline engine provides 99 per cent of the power when the car is cruising(匀速行车)．
The electric motor provides extra power for running up hills or when extra acceleration(加速度) is needed.
Step into a Prius, and turn on the power. The first thing you notice is that it is quieter than a traditional car. At this point, the car's gasoline engine is dormant. The electric motor will provide power until the car reaches about 24km/h. If you stay at low speed, you are effectively driving an electric car, with no gasoline being used, and no exhaust gas given off.
An onboard computer decides when to use the gasoline engine, when to go electric, and when to use a combination of the two. If you go over 24km/h, when you step on the gas pedal(油门), you are telling the computer how fast you want to go.
The electric motor recharges automatically(自动地)when braking. And when driving at certain speeds, the gasoline engine not only powers the car but also recharges the batteries.
When you use the brake, the electric motor acts like a generator(发电机) to produce electricity to recharge the batteries. Batteries will last for around 200 000 miles.
1.When the hybrid car is cruising, ______. A. only the gasoline engine provides power B. only the electric motor provides power C. there is no need to provide power D. both the gasoline engine and the electric motor provide power 答案及解析： 1. D。考查细节理解。从第四段可知。
2. The underlined word “dormant” means ______. A. inactive C. working 答案及解析： 2. A。考查词义猜测。从该词的前后两句话可知。
B. out of order D. non ? stop
3. Which of the following statements is false according to the text? A. The hybrid car is friendly environmental. B. The hybrid car is able to get itself charged. C. The hybrid car has been made in mass. D. The hybrid car can decide which power to use.
答案及解析： 3. C。考查正误判断。只说这种新型车上路了，但大量生产并没提到。
4. The best title of the text is______. A. Two? Powered Cars B. Greener Motors for China C. Cars of Saving Oil D. Safer Motors at Present 答案及解析： 4. B。考查主题理解。文章第一段是全文的中心，后面各段只是起补充说明的作用，因此 B 项最佳。
B The story goes that some time ago, a man punished his 3? year? daughter for old wasting a roll of gold wrapping paper. Money was tight and he became infuriated(愤怒的) when the child tried to decorate a box to put under the Christmas tree. Nevertheless, the little girl brought the gift to her father the next morning and said, “This is for you, Daddy.”
The man was embarrassed by his earlier overreaction, but his anger flared again when he found out the box was empty. He yelled at her, stating, “Don't
you know, when you give someone a present, there is supposed to be something inside？” The little girl looked up at him with tears in her eyes and cried, “Oh, Daddy, it's not empty at all. I blew kisses into the box. They're all for you, Daddy.” The father was crushed. He put his arms around his little girl, and he begged for her forgiveness.
Only a short time later, an accident took the life of the child. It is also told that her father kept that gold box by his bed for many years and, whenever he was discouraged, he would take out an imaginary kiss and remember the love of the child who had put it there.
In a very real sense, each one of us, as human beings, has been given a gold container filled with unconditional love and kisses from our children, family members, friends, and God. There is simply no other possession anyone could hold more precious than this.
5. The 3－year－old girl was punished by her father for ______. A. wasting gold
B. wasting wrapping paper C. putting the box under the Christmas tree D. bringing the gift to her father 答案及解析： 5. B。细节题。小女孩用的是包装金纸，不是金子。
6．What's inside the box according to the little girl? A. Nothing. B. Air. C. Kisses. D. Gold wrapping paper. 答案及解析： 6. C。细节题。根据第二段倒数第二句 I blew kisses into the box 可知．
7．The father remembered the love of his daughter by ______. A. kissing the gold box B. putting gold into the box C. taking out an imaginary kiss from the box D. keeping the little girl's ash box by his bed 答案及解析： 7. C。细节题。倒数第二段。
8. Choose the best title for the passage. A．The Kisses in the Box B．A Girl and His Father C．A Love Story D．The Box Under the Christmas Tree 答案及解析： 8. A。主旨大意题。虽然 the kisses in the box 也是文章中的一个细节，但却 是文章的主线，体现出了文章的中心思想。C 选项范围过大，B 和 D 是文中细节，没有概括 作用。