英语:选修10 unit4 learning efficiently-grammar课件(新人教版)_图文

人教实验版选修 10 Unit 4

Grammar
The Subjunctive Mood

?
1.

The Subjunctive Mood

If I were Andy Lou, I would be in Hong Kong now. hypotheses

I wish I were a millionaire. wishes 3. We suggest that everyone should help the AIDS patients. suggestion
2. ?

When to use the Subjunctive Mood in English? 虚拟语气

The definition of the Subjunctive Mood

虚拟语气是一种特殊的动词形式
(verb structure),用来表示说话人所说

的话不是一个事实 (fact),而只是一种
假设(hypotheses ) 愿望(wishes)、建议

(suggestion) 或怀疑doubt等等。

虚拟语气应该注意的几点:
1.虚拟语气在条件句中 1)表示不太可能出现的情况”, 条件从句一般用 过去时,主句用would do, should do 或 might

/could do;
2)表示“本可能发生却未发生的事情”, 条

件从句用过去完成时,主句用would have

done, should have done, might / could have done

? The old men would find it difficult to get a job if they left the farm. ? I should be surprised if it was less than five pounds. ? If I frightened those birds, they might fly off and I would never see them again.

? If I were you, I would accept the office.

? If I were asked to define my mood, I’d say “bored”. ? If he had taken his doctor’s advice, he might not have died so soon. ? If he had realized that, he would have run away while there was still time.
? If she had not married, she could have become special in the filed.

2.虚拟语气在条件句也可用来表示“将来不太可

能出现的情况”,

条件从句用 should do,

were to 或一般过去时,主句用 would do, should do, could/might do.
? If it should rain tomorrow, the sports meet would have to be put off.

? I could see the surface of the moon with my own eyes if I were to go to the moon some day. ? What would you do if he failed to come tomorrow?

注意:含有 should 的条件句,主句可以用一般 现在时或一般将来时.例如:

? If there should be another flood, what shall we do?
? Ask her to leave a message if she should come.

3. 在正式英语文体中,if 从句中的第一个动词如

果是should, were 或 had, 可将此动词置于句首,
替代 if.例如:

? Were it all true, it would still not excuse their actions.
? Had the captain been more careful, his ship would not have sunk. ? Should any visitors come, I would say you are not here.

4. if only 和 suppose (supposing), 也可以引导 虚拟从句.

? If only I had more time, I could go there to help them. ? Supposing it were fine tomorrow, would you go climbing the mountain with us?

5. If it were not / had not been for… 也是常见 的虚拟句型,意思是“要不是…” 例如:

? If it had not been for your help, we would not have achieved so much in our work. ? If it were not for the wise decision, We could not be living a happy life.

6. 虚拟语气用于I wish…

的宾语从句中:表示

现在时间,动词用一般过去时和过去进行时 (be
动词用were /was).表示过去时间,动词用过去 完成时和过去完成进行时.表示将来时间,动词 用 would/ could 等+动词原形

? I wish I knew how to operate this computer.
? I wish he weren’t so lazy. ? I do wish everything would be as quiet as before.

? I wish he hadn’t been working overtime yesterday.
注意:这里I wish… 所表达的意思与 if only…差 不多.以上的句子都可以用if only 来代替 I wish 例如:

? If only I knew how to operate this computer.
? If only we hadn’t been working overtime yesterday.

7. It’s (about/high) time +从句,表示“该做而 未做的事”,是一种婉转的建议,从句中的动词 用一般过去时 例如:

? It is high time we began to work.
? We’ve enjoyed the evening, but it’s time we went home. ? It’s about time the boy learned to behave himself.

8. 表示“要求、建议、命令” 等动词demand,

require, suggest, insist, advise, order 等后接宾 语从句时,从句谓语动词一般用虚拟语气,即 should + 动词原形(do/be done), should 也可以
省略.例如:

? He insisted that John (should) do the job.
? We suggest that the meeting (should) not be postponed. ? The union demanded that the wages (should) be raised by 20%.

常用的这类动词是:ask (要求), advise(建议),

command(命令), decide(决定), demand (要求), insist(坚持), move(提议), order (命令), propose(提出), require(要求), request(请求), suggest(建议), urge(主张)
如果这些动词不是表示“要求、建议、命令”等 意思时,这时宾语从句一般不用虚拟语气。

例如:
? He insisted that I was wrong. 意思是“坚持认为”) ? The expression on her face suggests that she knows the secret. (这儿 suggest 意思是 (这儿 insist

“表明”

1. If he had not lost his money, he ___ the piano last week.

A would buy
C bought

B had bought
D could have bought

2. If we were to be 200 years old, we ___ everything. A will change
C could change

B can change
D changed

3 If you __ that film last night, you would not be so sleepy now.
A didn’t see C wouldn’t seen B haven’t seen D hadn’t seen

4 You are late. If you __ a little minutes earlier, you __ him. A came, would meet

B had come, would have met
C came, would have met D were to come, would meet

5 But for the storm, we __ a pleasant journey.

A should have
C would have

B have had
D should have had

6 ___ to do the work, I should do it some other day. A If were I
C Were I

B I were
D Was I

7 Without the computer, the problem __ in such a short time. A couldn’t be solved

B wouldn’t have solved
C couldn’t have been solved

8 Without electricity, human life __ quite different today.
A will be C would be B were to be D is

9. You are very selfish. It’s high time you _______ you are not the most important person in the world,” Edgar said to his boss angrily.
A have realized C realize B realized D should realize

10. I wish I ____ longer this morning, but I had to get up and come to class A could have slept C might have slept B slept D have slept

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