状语功能：它主要用于修饰句子中的谓语动词、形容词或副词等，有时修饰整个句子。? 状语从句定义：用来充当状语的句子称为状语从句。结构是：连词+从句 位置：状语从句 的位置较活：可以放在主句之前，用逗号与主句隔开；也可以放在主句之后，一般不用 逗号。由于它是从各个方面来修饰、说明谓语动词发生时的各种情况，所以常见的状语从句有九种之多。 各种不同的状语从句所使用的关系词也各不相同。 ??
一、时间状语从句: 引导时间状语从句的从属连词有很多，现将分类用法如下：? 1. when，while 与 as When they heard the news，they all jumped with joy. The students sang as they walked. I made some foreign friends while I was in London. 注： 1)when 还可翻译为―那时，这时‖，相当于 and at this/that time。常用于下列句式： sb. was doing sth. when...某人正在干某事就在这时? sb. was about to/ going to do sth. when...某人正打算干某事就在这时……? 2)while 作为连词还可以意为―而，却‖，表示对比。 He likes pop music，while I like folk music.?? 2. as soon as， immediately， directly， the moment， the minute， no sooner...than..., hardly/scarcely... when...， once?这些连词引导的从句都表示从句的动作一发生， 主句的动作随即就发生， 意为―一……就……‖。从句中用一般时态代替将来时态。 如：Once you remember it，you’ll never forget it.? The moment I heard the voice，I knew my father was coming. No sooner had we arrived at the station than the train left.?? 当把 no sooner 和 hardly/scarcely 提到句首时，应用__________语序。?? I had hardly got home when it began to rain.? →Hardly_________________________________________ 3. till，until (not...until/till...直到……才) I’ll stay here till/until the rain stops. He didn’t go home till/until he finished his homework.
注：1) till 不可以置于句首，而 until 可以置于句首。如___________ you told me, I knew it. 2)如果将―not until...‖结构放在句首，那么主句要写成倒装句。 如：They didn’t realize it until we pointed out their fault to them.=___________we pointed
out their fault to them__________ ___________realize it.? 4. every time，each time，next time 等名词短语用来引导时间状语从句，表示―每当……，每 次……，下次……‖。 如：Next time you come，do remember to bring your son here.? 5. before(在……之前)，after(在……之后)，since(自从……以来)。如：? Please remember to turn off all the lights before you leave the classroom.? He ran out of the room before I could told him the news. It will be two years before we graduate from our school. I have lived in Beijing since I was 10.? 注：1)上述三个既是连词，也是介词。 二、地点状语从句 1.常用的引导词有 where（在……地方）,wherever （无论在什么地方）等。指具体地点时， 从句可 用于主句之前或之后，表示抽象条件时，从句须放在主句之前。如：? The university graduates are determined to go wherever they are needed most.?? They are planting trees where there is plenty of water and sunlight.? Where there is a will, there is a way.有志者事竟成。 2.注意区分 where 引导的定语从句与状语从句。如：你最好在有问题的地方作个标记。? You’d better make a mark where you have any questions.(____________________)? You’d better make a mark at the place where you have any
questions.(____________________)?? 三、条件状语从句 ?1.常用的引导词有 if（如果，假如）,unless（除非，如果不）,as long as（只要）,so long as （只要）,provided (that） （只要） ，suppose/supposing（that） （假设） ，on condition (that） （如果） 等。 如：I may not come to see you recently unless I can complete the project ahead of time.?? We can surely attain our goal as long as we are united as one.? They promised to let us have a meeting in their office on condition(that） we could keep it clean.? Suppose/supposing your statement is right, how are you going to prove it? ? 四、原因状语从句 1.常用的引导词有 because 因为,as 由于,since 既然，由于,now that 既然，由于, seeing that，
considering that 等。 2.要点提示：?1) 从属连词用法区别 because—直接原因，非推断．语气最强．对 why 的回答 since – 通常放句首．译为―既然‖ Since you’re so interested in English, why not have a try in the English Speech Contest??? as– 不谈自明的原因，语气最弱． for– 放句中，对前面一句话的内容的补充说明 。 I can’t go with you, for I have a lot of things to do. 2）其他表示原因的方式?除了状语从句外，一些介词短语同样可以表示原因，这样的短语 有 because of; thanks to; due to; owing to 等。?? 五、让步状语从句 引导让步状语从句的从属连词有 though （虽然） ,although （虽然） ， even if （即使） ,?even though （即使）,as(尽管)，while(虽然),whether...or...(无论……还是……),no matter+疑问词（无论） 。 1.though 或 although 引导让状语从句。?although 与 though 两者意思相同，一般可互换，都 可以与 yet，still 或 nevertheless 连用，但不能和________连用。如：?Though/ Although he has a lot of money, _________________he is unhappy 注：though 还可用作副词，意为―可是，然而‖，置于________。如：? He said he would come；he didn’t though. 2.当 as 作―尽管，虽然‖的意思讲引导让步状语从句时，从句往往放在主句的前面，而且用 作让步的部分（表语、状语或动词原形）总是提前到句首。若表语是名词，前置时要省略冠 词。 如： ?As he is old, he is still energetic.?( )__________________________________?
3.whether...or（不管……） ; 疑问词+ ever 与 no matter+疑问词（不管……，无论……） 。 however （不管怎样） ,whatever （无论什么） ,whoever （无论谁） 。 no matter when(how, what, who, where, which）无论何时（怎样，什么，谁，何地，哪个）等。 如：No matter where you go on the earth, you will feel the gravity.? We’ll start our meeting on time whether he comes or not.? 4.even if Even if we are approaching the end of the experiment, we still have no time to lose.? 六、方式状语从句 常用的引导词有 as（如同，按照）,as if（似乎，仿佛）,as though（似乎，仿佛）等。如：
He speaks English almost as a native speaker does.? He speaks English as if he were a native speaker.?? 七、目的状语从句 常用的引导词有 so that（以便，为了）,in order that（为了）,lest（以免，以防）,in case （万 一）,for fear that（以免，以防）等。如：? We should do our best in order that we may be able to fulfill the task.?? You’d better leave your phone number so( that) I can call you before I come next time.? Batteries must be kept in dry places for fear that electricity leaks away.?? 另外，在表示否定的目的状语从句中，谓语动词往往用―should+动词原形‖或―情态动词+动词 原形‖两种虚拟句式。如：?He took his umbrella with him lest it should rain.? I’ll keep a seat for you in case you should change your mind.? 八、结果状语从句 1.常用的引导词有 that （结果， 以至） ， so that （结果， 以至） ， so...that （如此……以至） ,such...that （如此……以至）等。 如：The temperature is increased so that the volume(体积) of gas becomes greater.? ? It is such a lovely day that everybody feels happy .?
注： 1)so...that 和 such...that 都是引导结果状语从句的从属连词， 它们都表示―如此……以至‖， 但其要求的句型结构不一样。
?so＋形容词/副词＋that从句 ? that从句 ?so＋形容词＋a/an＋可数名词单数形式＋ ?so＋many/much/ few/little ＋名词＋that从句 ? 数形式＋that从句 ?such＋a/an＋形容词＋可数名词单 ? 式/不可数名词＋ that从句 ?such＋形容词＋复数名词形 ?such＋a lot of/lotsof＋名词＋that从句 ?
如：He ran _________ fast that his brother couldn’t catch up with him.? He is ___________ a naughty boy that he becomes unwelcome in his neighborhood.?? She looks ___________ lovely that everybody can’t help taking a look at her when passing her by. 2)当 so 或 such 置于句首时，主句要用倒装语序。如：? So ___________________ that he was able to work out all the difficult problems. ?
2.除结果状语从句外， too...to...(太……而不能……)，enough to...(能够……)，so...as? to...(那 么……以至于……)等不定式结构同样可以表示结果。
如：He didn’t get up early enough to catch the bus.?=He got up________ late ____________catch the bus.? 九、比较状语从句 常用的引导词有 than（比……）,as...as（如……一样……）,―the +比较级...,the+比较级...‖ （越……越……）等。 如：He is taller than his brother.? The more they discover about the brain, the more questions they can’t answer in that area. 状语从句中的省略 1. 若从句中的主语与主句的主语一致，同时从句中又含有系动词 be，则通常省去从句的主 语和系动词 be 而保留其余部分。 如：While（ she was） very young，she began to study English. Once(this dictionary was )printed，it will be very popular． Do not leave the building until( you are) instructed to do so． 2.若从句主语是 it，动词是系动词 be,则通常省去主语 it 及系动词 be 而保留其余部分。如： ?Everything went on better than (it had been) expected.一切进展得比预料的要好。 3.若从句中部分内容与主句中的部分内容相同，可将从句中的此部分内容省略。这样的结构 有 if not if so if any if possible 如：? She has no money. If (she has) any，she will give us.
全国高考汇编之状语从句 1. The meaning of the word "nice’changed a few times___________ it finally came to include the sense "pleasant." A. before B. after C. since D. while 【举一反三】You can’t borrow books from the school library ______ you get your student card. A. before B. if C. while D. as 2._______ the forest park is far away, a lot of tourists visit it every year. A. As B. When C. Even though D. In case 3.Children，when____________by their parents, are allowed to enter the stadium. A. to be accompanied B. to accompany C. accompanying D. accompanied 【举一反三】 The experiment shows that proper amounts of exercise, if ______regularly, can improve our health. A. being carried out B. carrying out C. carried out D. to carry out 4. You will never gain success_______you are fully devoted to your work. A. when B. because C. after D. unless
【举一反三】 It is hard for the Greek government to get over the present difficulties________ gets more financial support from the European Union. A. if B. unless C. because D. since 5. Lessons can be learned to face the future, _________history cannot be changed. A. though B. as C. since D. unless 【举一反三】It was a nice meal, _______a little expensive. A. though B. whether C. as D. since 6. It was the middle of the night __ my father woke me up and told me to watch the football game . A. that B. as C. which D. when 7. I don’t really like the author,_______ I have to admit his books are very exciting. A. although B. unless C. until D. once 【举一反三】I don't believe we've met before, ______ I must say you do look familiar. A. therefore B. although C. since D. unless 8. The young couple, who returned my lost wallet, left _______ I could ask for their names. A. while B. before C. after D. since 9. I'll be out for some time. ______ anything important happens, call me up immediately. A. In case B. As if C. Even though D. Now that 10._______ you start eating in a healthier way, weight control will become much easier. A. unless B. Although C. Before D. Once 【举一反三】________they decide which college to go to, students should research the admission procedures. A. As B. While C. Until D. Once 11. Cathy had quit her job when her son was born ______ she could stay home and raise her family. A.now that B. as if C. only if D. so that 【举一反三】 One's life has value ________one brings value to the life of others. A. so that B. no matter how C. as long as D. except that 12.Half an hour later, Lucy still couldn’t get a taxi ____the bus had dropped her. A. until B. When C. although D. where 【举一反三】Today, we will begin _______we stopped yesterday so that no point will be left out. A. when B. where C. how D. what 13. _____ I always felt I would pass the exam, I never thought I would get an A. A. While B. Once C. If D. Until 14. _____ hard you try, it is difficult to lose weight without cutting down the amount you eat. A. However B. Whatever C. Whichever D. Whenever 15. At school, some students are active _____ some are shy, yet they can be good friends with one another. A. while B. although C. so D. as
16. ______ we have enough evidence, we can't win the case. A. Once B As long as C. Unless D. Since 17. It’s much easier to make friends______ you have similar interests. A. unless B. when C. even though D. so that
1.（全国高考 I，25）I don’t believe we’ve met before, _____ I must say you do look familiar. A. therefore B. although C. since D. unless 2.（重庆高考，30）─Coach, can I continue with the training? ─Sorry, you can’t _____ you haven’t recovered from the knee injury. A. until B. before C. as D. unless 3.（湖南高考，28）_____ I always felt I would pass the exam, I never thought I would get an A. A. While B. Once C. If D. Until 4. （湖南高考， 32） _____ hard you try, it is difficult to lose weight without cutting down the amount you eat. A. However B. Whatever C. Whichever D. Whenever 5.（福建高考，30）It is hard for the Greek government to get over the present difficulties _____ it gets more financial support from the European Union. A. if B. unless C. because D. since 6.（北京高考，21）─Look at those clouds! ─Don’t worry. _____ it rains, we’ll still have a great time. A. Even if B. As though C. In case D. If only 7.（江西高考，31）You can borrow my car _____ you promise not to drive too fast. A. unless B. even if C. in case D. as long as 8.（陕西高考，18）Hot _____ the night air was, we slept deeply because we were so tired after the long journey. A. although B. as C. while D. however
9.（陕西高考，25）All the photographs in this book, _____ stated otherwise, date from the 1950s. A. unless B. until C. once D. if 10.（四川高考，4）At school, some students are active _____ some are shy, yet they can be good friends with one another. A. while B. although C. so D. as 11.（四川高考，10）If you happen to get lost in the wild, you’d better stay _____ you are and wait for help. A. why B. where C. who D. what 12. （天津高考， 14） Everything was placed exactly _____ he wanted it for the graduation ceremony. A. while B. when C. where D. though 13.（辽宁高考，30）Leave your key with your neighbor _____ you lock yourself out one day. A. as long as B. even though C. in case D. as if 14.（山东高考，27）He smiled politely _____ Mary apologized for her drunken friends. A. as B. if C. unless D. though 15. （山东高考， 32） A number of high buildings have arisen _____ there was nothing a year ago but ruins. A. when B. where C. before D. until 16.（江苏高考，30）One’s life has value _____ one brings value to the life of others. A. so that B. no matter how C. as long as D. except that 17.（上海高考，32）I have a tight budget for the trip, so I'm not going to fly _ the airlines lower ticket prices. A. once B. if C. after D. unless
18.【2013 北京】 I took my driving license with me on holiday,______ I wanted to hire a car. A. in case B. even if C. ever since D. if only 19.【2013 福建】 Anyone, once _______ positive for H7N9 flu virus, will receive free medical treatment from our government. A. to be tested B. being tested C. tested D. to test 20. 【2013 湖南】 You must learn to consult your feelings and your reason ________ you reach any decision. A. although B. Before C. Because D. unless 21.【2013 江苏】In the global economy, a new drug for cancer, ______ it is discovered, will create many economic possibilities around the world. A. whatever B. whoever C. wherever D. whichever 22.【2013 江西】She says that she’ll have to close the shop ________ business improves. A. if B. Unless C. after D. when 23.【2013 江西】If _____ to look after luggage for someone else, inform the police at once. A. asked B. to ask C. asking D. having asked
24. 【2013 辽宁】 One can always manage to do more things, no matter _______ full one’s schedule is in life. A. how B. what C. when D. where 25. 【2013 山东】 Mark needs to learn Chinese _______ his company is opening a branch in Beijing. A. unless B. until C. although D. since 26.【2013 山东】 _________I have to give a speech, I get extremely nervous before I start. A. Whatever B. Whenever C. Whoever D. However 27.【2013 陕西】I have heard a lot of good things about you_____________ I came back from abroad. A. since B. until C. before D. when 28.【2013 四川】He was so busy. He cannot afford enough time with his son _____ he wants to. A. even if B. as if C. because D. before 29.【2013 天津】 _______ small, the company has about 1,000 buyers in over 30 countries. A. As B. If C. Although D. Once 30.【2013 浙江】 There are some health problems that, when ______ in time, can become bigger ones later on. A. not treated B. not being treated C. not to be treated D. not have been treated 31.【2013 重庆】. ______ we have enough evidence, we can't win the case. A. Once B As long as C. Unless D. Since
32.【2013 安徽】It’s much easier to make friends______ you have similar interests. A. unless B. when C. even though D. so that