虚语语气（the Subjunctive Mood）表示说话人的一种 愿望、建议、命令、要求、有时是一种非真实的假设、 料想，或是不可能实现的与事实相反的愿望。
陈述语气（the Indicative Mood）用来陈述一个事实，或提 出一个想法，有肯定、否定、疑问或感叹等形式。
The fish is not alive without water.
1、条件句中的虚拟语气的用法； 2、条件句中虚拟语气的倒装； 3、名词性从句中虚拟语气的用法；
If it rains tomorrow, the crops will be saved. 陈述语气
If it rained tomorrow, the crops would be saved. 虚拟语气
If + 主 + did(were), 主+would/should/could/might +动词原形
If I were you, I would try it again.
If I had one million dollars, I would buy the plane.
If +主 +had done sth, 主+would/should/could/might +动词完成式（have done）
If he had worked hard, he would have passed the examination.
If I had married her, I would have been unhappy.
If + 主 + did(were to /should do), 主+would/should/ could/might +动词原形
If he came here tomorrow, I would tell him about it.
If he were to come here tomorrow, I would tell him.
If you __________tomorrow, you _________ find the new manager working in the office.
A. should come; would C. will come; should
B. would come; would D. comes; might
If the parents ______at the hospital earlier after the accident, the child would have been saved.
A. arrives C. had arrived
B. arrive D. has arrived
If he _________he ___________that food. Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately. A. was warned; would not have taken B. had been warned; would not have taken C. would be warned; had not taken
D. would have been warned; had not taken
I didn’t see your sister at the meeting. If she __________, she would have met my brother.
A. has come B. did come C. came D. had come
If my lawyer _______here last Sunday, he _______ me from going . A. had been; would have prevented B. had been; would prevent C. were; would prevent D. were; would have prevented
如果条件状语中有were, had, should时, 可以倒 装成：Were / Should / Had +主+其他 If I were you, I would try it again. Were I you, I would try it again. If he had been there yesterday, he would have seen the film. Had he been there yesterday, he would have seen the film. If it should snow tomorrow, we wouldn’t go out. Should it snow tomorrow, we wouldn’t go out.
_________the exam, he would have attend a college. A. If he passed C. Were he passed B. Had he passed D. If he should pass
_______five minutes earlier, you could have seen them off. A. If you should arrive B. If you arrive C. Had you arrived D. Should you arrive ________it rain tomorrow, we should have to put off the visit to the Science Museum. A. Were B. should C. would D. will
wish + that How I wish If only
did/were 现在 had done 过去
would / might /would do 将来
I wish I remembered the address. 要是他没有离开这里就好了。（他已离开）
How I wish he had not left.
I wish it would rain tomorrow.
5. If only
(1) …要是就好了 = I wish
If only I knew his name now! If only we had followed your advice last time!
If only I could see him again next year!
If only our parents could live with us!
If only I hadn’t missed the train!
“ Have you visited the Science Museum?” “ No, but I really wish I _______.” A. had B. did C. have D. will
I didn’t go to the party, but I do wish I _____there. A. was B. were C. had been D. went I wish I _________ you yesterday. A. see B. did see C. had seen D. were to see
-----He is a brave man. -----Yes, I wish I _________his courage.
A. Have B. had C. will have D. would have Tom can take his car apart and put it back together again. I certainly wish he _____me how. A. teaches C. has taught B. will teach D. would teach
The picture exhibition bored me to death. I wish I ___________to it. A. hadn’t gone C. didn’t go B. haven’t gone D. could not have gone
How I wish I __________that! Everybody present was angry with me. A. didn’t go C. wouldn’t do B. hadn’t done D. wasn’t doing
as if /though
He speaks English as if/ though he is from the USA. 陈述语气 He speaks English as if/ though he were from the USA. 虚拟语气
2. as if /though + Clause
现在： 过去： 将来 : did /were(现在) had done(过去)
She loves the baby as if it were her own son.
He speaks as if he had been to the United States.
would/should/could/ might have done would/should/could/ might do even if/ though, wish,, if only等从句 的虚拟与它相同。
时间 条件从句 if 过去 现在 将来
had done did/were 1.should do 2.were to do 3.did
如果我是你，我就听从他的建议。 If I were you, I would have taken his advice. 从句表示现在，主句表示过去 如果你听我的话，现在就不会这么糟糕了。 If you had listened to me, you might not be in such trouble now. 从句表示过去，主句表示现在 如果这些天一直没下雨，我们现在可以进行 工作了。 If it hadn’t been raining those days, we should be going on with the works. 从句表过去进行，主句表现在进行
注意: 主从句时间不一致情况下的虚拟语气 (混合条件句): 有时条件从句中的动作和结果与主句 中的动作，发生的时间不一致，这时 动作的形式应根据它所表示的时间加 以调整。
If you had followed my advice, you would be able to finish the work now. 如果你当时听了我的话，现在就能完成这份 工作了。 （从句说明过去，主句说明现在。）
If I were you, I would have gone to her birthday party. 如果我是你，我就去参加她的生日晚会了。 （从句说明现在，主句说明过去。）
If you hadn’t lent me some money, I couldn’t have bought the new house and most likely I would be still living in the dangerous house now. 假若你不借钱给我， 我不可能买下这幢 新房，很可能现在还住在危房里。 （从句说明过去，主句说明过去和现 在。）
suggest, order, demand, propose, command, request, desire, insist, require, advice etc.引 导的宾语从句要用虚拟语气，以(should) + v 原的形式出现。
We all suggest that he ( should ) finish his homework first. The captain commanded that all the sailors ( should ) get down to work at once.
It’s suggested ( ordered, demanded, proposed, commanded, requested, desired, insisted, required ) that … 后面的主语从句中要使用 虚拟语气，也以 ( should )+ v原.的形式出 现。
It’s ordered that only German ( should ) be taught at schools in Alsas and Lorin. It’s requested that all the students ( should ) wear school uniforms at school.
以上这些动词的名词形式后面的表语从句 和同位语从句中也要用虚拟语气，也应以 (should) + v原. 的形式出现。 My suggestion is that you ( should ) go home first before coming here. My advice is that you (should) practise speaking English as often as possible His request that his cost ( should ) be paid by the hour is completely reasonable. The order came that the work (should) be finished two days ahead of time
注意:当suggest 表示“暗 示”;insist表示“坚持认为”时 不用虚拟！ His accent suggests he comes from
Hunan. His silence suggested that he agreed with my decision I insist that he was wrong He insists that doing morning exercises does good to people’s health.
1. would rather that
未来： 过去时 I would rather you paid me now. I would rather you had gone, too.
Don’t come. I would rather you came tomorrow.
注意: 在主语＋would (had) rather ＋that 宾语从句中，从句谓语一般 用过去式表示虚拟形式。例如:
I’d rather you told me the truth.
我宁愿不再见着你。 I’d rather I didn’t see you again. 我倒希望他们和我一起去。
I would rather they went with me.
(1) 对现在的虚拟,谓语动词用过去 时 (系动词用were),意指主从句谓 语表示的动词同时发生.例如:
He looks as if he were ill. 他感到他应该独自对发生的 事情承 担责任.
He felt as if he alone were responsible for what had happened.
(2) 对过去的虚拟谓语动词使用 had+过去分词, 意指从句谓语动词 发生在主句谓语动词之前.例如:
她英语说的很好就象是在英国学习的一 样. She spoke English well as if she had studied English in England.
I remember the whole thing as if it had happened yesterday.
(3) 对未来的虚拟谓语动词使用 would+动词原形, 意指从句谓语动词 发生在主句谓语动词之后. 例如:
Mrs. Smith sobbed as if her heart would break.
When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it __________. A. breaks B. has broken C. were broken D. had been broken The actor is 58 years old. But he acts as if he _______ a young man. A. is B. will be C. am D. were
The clouds are getting darker and darker. It looks as if it _______rain.
A. is going to C. was going to B. will D. would
注意：如果表示的事情可能 会发生，那么状语从句中的 谓语动词可用陈述语气。 It looks as if you are tired.
3. It’s (about/high) time +that --- 过去时 should +V. It’s high time that you went. 你该走了。 It’s high time that you were going. It’s high time that you should go.
我们该去睡觉了。 time that we went to bed. It’s
It’s time that we should go to bed.
4. without和but for 构成虚拟。but for要不是
Without sunlight, people’s life would be different from today. But for your help, I wouldn’t have finished the work. Without your help, I would have failed. But for water, it would be impossible to live in the desert.
5. If only
(1) …要是就好了 = I wish
If only I knew his name! If only we had followed your advice!
If only I could see him again! 要是我们的父母能和我们住在一起就好了。 要是我没错过火车就好了！
If only our parents could live with us! If only I hadn’t missed the train!
(2) = as long as 常用陈述语气. 如果我们紧密团结就一定能战胜 一切困难.
We can surely overcome these difficulties if only we are closely united.
6. It’s necessary /strange/ natural/ important + that---Clause 从句中的动词要用虚拟，
It is important that we ( should ) master a foreign language. It is strange that she refuse to come to the party.
It’s necessary that we should study hard.
7. otherwise 和supposing也可以引 导虚拟语气。例如： The storm stopped, otherwise the sailors would have fallen into the sea. I’m getting cold, otherwise I would keep her. Suppose(supposing) your friends knew how you are behaving here, what would they think?
8. so that 与in order that
二者引导的目的状语从句谓语部分应该用 may /might/can /could /etc.+动词原形 She stayed at home for a few days so that she might have more time to study it. She listened carefully in order that she minght discover exactly what he wanted. He went to the station in a taxi so that he should not miss the train.
9.用 “may+动词原形”表示祝愿， 但愿，此时may须置于句首 May good luck be yours!祝你好运！ May you be happy!祝你快乐！ May you do even better!祝你取得 更大成就 Long live the people! 人民万岁！ “God bless you,” said the priest. 牧师说：“愿上帝保佑你！”
非真实条件句中的条件从 句有时不表出来，只暗含 在上下文中，这种句子叫 做含蓄条件句。含蓄条件 句大体有三种情况:
1. 条件暗含在短语中。如： W hat would I have done without you? (条件暗含在分词短语without you中)
It would be easier to do it this way. (条件暗含在不定式短语to do it this way 中)
But for your help we couldn’t have succeeded in the experiment. (暗含条件是but for your help)
This same thing, happening in wartime, would lead to a disaster. (条件暗含在分词短语happening in wartime 中) He must have the strength of a hippopotamus or he never could have vanquished that great beast. (暗含条件是连词or) Alone, he would have been terrified. (暗含条件是alone)
You might stay here forever. (可能暗含if you wanted to)
We would have succeeded. (可能暗含if we had kept trying) Your reputation would be ruined. (可能暗含if you should accept it) I would appreciate a little of your time. (可能暗含if you were so kind as to give me
3. 在不少情况下，虚拟式已变成习惯说 法，很难找出其暗含的条件。如：
You wouldn’t know. 你不会知道。 I would like to come. 我愿意来。 I wouldn’t have dreamed of it. 这是我做梦也不会想到的。 He told the story in such minute detail that he might himself have been an eye-witness. 他将那事讲的非常仔细，简直就象他亲眼看
?1 He suggested that the meeting off. A. not be B. should not C. wouldn’t D. be not 2 It is strange that he so. A. thinks B. think C.thought 3 I wish I A. met D. will think my uncle yesterday. B. have met
C. would meet D. had met 4 The old professor gave orders that the experiment before 6. A. was finished B. will finish C. be finished D. shall be finished
5. She says she’d rather he ____tomorrow instead of today. A. had C. leaves B. should leave D. left
6. It’s already 5 o’clock now. Don’t you think it’s about time____ ? A. we are going home
B. if she leaves C. we went home
D. if she had left
7 It’s high time he home. A. goes B. went C. will go D. is going to go 8 you succeed and you be healthy. A. May…may B. Wish…wish C. Hope…hope D. Should…may 9 Galileo insisted that the earth round the sun. A. should move B. move
D. A or B
?10 If only I ____ to my parents’ advice! A. listening B. listen C. am listening D. had listened 11 ---Why didn’t you come to the party yesterday? ---I ____ , but an unexpected visitor came to see me. A. did B. would C. had D. was going to 12 I’d rather you ____ me the news. A. not tell B. not to tell C. didn’t tell D. hadn’t told
1. The boy who went swimming in the Noswimming Zone drowned in the river. If the boy hadn’t gone swimming in the No-swimming Zone, he wouldn’t have drowned in the river. Had the boy not gone swimming in the No-swimming Zone, he wouldn’t have drowned in the river.
2. Billy was badly bitten by mosquitoes because he forgot to use the mosquito net last night.
If Billy had remembered to use the mosquito net last night, he would not have been bitten by… Had Billy remembered to use the mosquito net last night, he would not have been bitten by…
3. The mother carelessly put the knife within the baby’s reach, and the baby cut herself while playing it. If the mother had carefully put the knife out of the baby’s reach, the baby wouldn’t have cut herself.
Had the mother carefully put the knife out of the baby’s reach, the baby wouldn’t have cut herself.
4.The students got food-poisoning after eating the potatoes in the dining-room. If the students had not eaten the potatoes in the dinning-room, they wouldn’t have got food-poisoning. Had the students not eaten the potatoes in the dinning-room, they wouldn’t have got food-poisoning.
5. The parents put the thermos on the ground. Their son kicked it and got burnt. If the parents had put the thermos in a safe place, their son wouldn’t have kicked it and got burnt. Had the parents put the thermos in a safe place, their son wouldn’t have kicked it and got burnt.