英语:Unit 4 Learning efficiently-Grammar课件 新人教选修10 公开课一等奖课件_图文

Grammar
The Subjunctive Mood

The Subjunctive Mood

1. If I were Andy Lou, I would be in Hong Kong now. hypotheses 2. I wish I were a millionaire. wishes
3. We suggest that everyone should help the AIDS patients. suggestion When to use the Subjunctive Mood in English? 虚拟语气

The definition of the Subjunctive Mood 虚拟语气是一种特殊的动词形式

(verb structure), 用来表示说话人所说
的话不是一个事实 (fact),而只是一种

假设(hypotheses )愿望(wishes)、建议
(suggestion) 或怀疑(doubt)等等。

虚拟语气应该注意的几点:
1. 虚拟语气在条件句中
1) “表示不太可能出现的情况”, 条

件从句一般用过去时,主句用
would do, should do 或 might

/could do;

2) 表示“本可能发生却未发生的事 情”, 条件从句用过去完成时, 主句 用would have done, should have done, might / could have done.

? The old men would find it difficult to get a job if they left the farm. ? I should be surprised if it was less than five pounds. ? If I frightened those birds, they might fly off and I would never see them again. ? If I were you, I would accept the offer.

? If I were asked to define my mood, I’d say “bored”. ? If he had taken his doctor’s advice, he might not have died so soon. ? If he had realized that, he would have run away while there was still time. ? If she had not married, she could have become special in the filed.

2. 虚拟语气在条件句也可用来表示“将 来不太可能出现的情况”, 条件从句用 should do, were to do或一般过去时, 主 句用 would do, should do, could/might do.

? If it should rain tomorrow, the sports

meet would have to be put off.
? I could see the surface of the moon

with my own eyes if I were to go to
the moon some day.

? What would you do if he failed to
come tomorrow?

注意: 含有 should 的条件句, 主句可以

用一般现在时或一般将来时. 例如:
? If there should be another flood, what

shall we do?
? Ask her to leave a message if she

should come.

3. 在正式英语文体中, if 从句中的第 一个动词如果是should, were 或 had, 可将此动词置于句首, 替代 if.例如:

? Were it all true, it would still not excuse their actions. ? Had the captain been more careful, his ship would not have sunk. ? Should any visitors come, I would say you are not here.

4. if only 和 suppose (supposing), 也可 以引导虚拟从句. ? If only I had more time, I could go there to help them.

? Supposing it were fine tomorrow,
would you go climbing the mountain

with us?

5. If it were not / had not been for… 也 是常见的虚拟句型, 意思是“要不 是……” 例如: ? If it had not been for your help, we would not have achieved so much in our work. ? If it were not for the wise decision, we could not be living a happy life.

6. 虚拟语气用于I wish…

的宾语从句

中: 表示现在时间, 动词用一般过去时

和过去进行时 (be动词用were /was)。
表示过去时间, 动词用过去完成时和

过去完成进行时。 表示将来时间, 动
词用 would/ could 等+动词原形。

? I wish I knew how to operate this

computer.
? I wish he weren’t so lazy.

? I do wish everything would be as
quiet as before.

? I wish we hadn’t been working
overtime yesterday.

注意: 这里I wish… 所表达的意思与 if only…差不多。以上的句子都可 以用if only 来代替 I wish 例如:

? If only I knew how to operate this
computer.

? If only we hadn’t been working
overtime yesterday.

7. It’s (about/high) time +从句,表示 “该做而未做的事”, 是一种婉转的建 议, 从句中的动词用一般过去时。例如: ? It is high time we began to work. ? We’ve enjoyed the evening, but it’s time we went home. ? It’s about time the boy learned to behave himself.

8. 表示“要求、建议、命令” 等动词
demand, require, suggest, insist,

advise, order 等后接宾语从句时, 从
句谓语动词一般用虚拟语气, 即 should + 动词原形 (do/be done), should 也可以省略.例如:

? He insisted that John (should) do
the job.

? We suggest that the meeting
(should) not be postponed.

? The union demanded that the
wages (should) be raised by 20%.

常用的这类动词是: ask (要求), advise (建议), command(命令), decide(决定), demand(要求), insist(坚持), move(提 议), order(命令), propose(提出), require(要求), request(请求), suggest (建议), urge(主张) 如果这些动词不是 表示“要求、建议、命令”等意思时, 这时宾语从句一般不用虚拟语气。

例如: ? He insisted that I was wrong. (这儿 insist 意思是“坚持认为”) ? The expression on her face suggests that she knows the secret. (这儿 suggest 意思是“表明”)

虚拟语气在条件句中除了表示与将来、现在 及过去事实相反的情况以外,还需要注意以 下几点: 一、 错综时间条件句 当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的 行为所发生的时间不一致时,动词的形式要 依据它所表示的时间来调整。如: If you had taken the medicine yesterday, you might be well now.

(条件句与过去事实相反,主句与现在事实 相反。) 如果你昨天吃了药, 你的病今天也许就好 了。 二、省略if的条件句 如果if条件句中有were,had,should时, 可省略if,把were,had,should放在主语前。 这种结构主要用于书面语中。如:

Were it necessary (= If it were necessary), I might resign. 如果需要的话,我可以辞职。 Had you informed me earlier (= If you had informed me earlier), I wouldn’t have signed the contract. 要是你早点告诉我的话,我是不会签那 份合同的。

三、含蓄条件句 有些句子虽不含条件句,但意思和含条 件句的句子差不多,这种句子叫含蓄条件句, 这种句子中也用虚拟语气。含蓄条件句的 “暗含”之意一般用三种方法来表达: 1. 条件暗含在短语中。如: Without air, there would be no living things. 没有空气,就没有生命。

(条件暗含在介词短语Without air中) But for your help, I couldn’t have made so much progress. 要不是你的帮助,我不可能取得这么大 的进步。 (条件暗含在介词短语But for your help中) This same thing, happening in wartime, would result in disaster.

同样的事,如果发生在战时,就会酿 成大祸。 (条件暗含在分词短语happening in wartime中) 2. 条件暗含在上下文中。如: You might stay here forever. 你可以永远待在这儿。 (可能暗含if you wanted to) They would have succeeded.

他们本来是会成功的。 (可能暗含if they had kept trying) 3. 在不少情况下,虚拟式已经成为习惯 说法,很难找出其暗含的条件。如: I wouldn’t have dreamed of it. 这是我做梦也不会想到的。 四、省去主句的非真实条件句 非真实条件句如果省去主句,通常表 示一种不可能实现的愿望。

这种条件句常用if only来引导。如: If only I had known where to find you just now. 刚才我要是知道去哪儿找你就好了。

1. If he had not lost his money, he ___ the piano last week. A. would buy B. had bought C. bought D. could have bought 2. If we were to be 200 years old, we ___ everything. A. will change B. can change C. could change D. changed

3. If you __ that film last night,
you would not be so sleepy now.

A. didn’t see
B. haven’t seen

C. wouldn’t seen
D. hadn’t seen

4. You are late. If you __ a little
minutes earlier, you __ him.

A. came, would meet
B. had come, would have met

C. came, would have met
D. were to come, would meet

5. But for the storm, we __ a pleasant journey. A. should have B. have had C. would have D. should have had 6. ___ to do the work, I should do it some other day. A. If were I B. I were C. Were I D. Was I

7. Without the computer, the problem

__ in such a short time.
A. couldn’t be solved

B. wouldn’t have solved
C. couldn’t have been solved

8. Without electricity, human life __ quite different today. A. will be B. were to be C. would be D. is

9. “You are very selfish. It’s high time
you _______ you are not the most important person in the world,” Edgar said to his boss angrily. A. have realized B. realized C. realize D. should realize

10. I wish I ____ longer this morning,

but I had to get up and come to
class.

A. could have slept B. slept
C. might have slept D. have slept

根据括号中的提示翻译下列句子。 1. 如果你接受了我的建议,你现在就好 了。(错综时间条件句) If you had taken my advice, you would be all right now. 2. 如果你提前告诉我,我就去机场接他 了。(省略if的条件句) Had you told me in advance, I would have met him at the airport.

3.要不是中国共产党,他三十年前就 饿死了。(含蓄条件句) But for the Communist Party of China, he would have died of hunger 30 years ago. 4.要是我像你一样知道怎么操作电脑 就好了。(省去主句的非真实条件句) If only I knew how to operate a computer as you do.

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附赠 中高考状元学习方法





高考状元是一个特殊的群体,在许多 人的眼中,他们就如浩瀚宇宙里璀璨夺目 的星星那样遥不可及。但实际上他们和我 们每一个同学都一样平凡而普通,但他们 有是不平凡不普通的,他们的不平凡之处 就是在学习方面有一些独到的个性,又有 着一些共性,而这些对在校的同学尤其是 将参加高考的同学都有一定的借鉴意义。

青 春 风 采

高考总分:

692分(含20分加分) 语文131分 数学145分 英语141分 文综255分
毕业学校:北京二中 报考高校: 北京大学光华管理学 院 北京市文科状元 阳光女孩--何旋

来自北京二中,高考成绩672分,还有20 分加分。“何旋给人最深的印象就是她 的笑声,远远的就能听见她的笑声。” 班主任吴京梅说,何旋是个阳光女孩。 “她是学校的摄影记者,非常外向,如 果加上20分的加分,她的成绩应该是 692。”吴老师说,何旋考出好成绩的秘 诀是心态好。“她很自信,也很有爱心。 考试结束后,她还问我怎么给边远地区 的学校捐书”。

班主任: 我觉得何旋今天取得这样的成绩, 我觉得,很重要的是,何旋是土生土长的北京 二中的学生,二中的教育理念是综合培养学生 的素质和能力。我觉得何旋,她取得今天这么 好的成绩,一个来源于她的扎实的学习上的基 础,还有一个非常重要的,我觉得特别想提的, 何旋是一个特别充满自信,充满阳光的这样一 个女孩子。在我印象当中,何旋是一个最爱笑 的,而且她的笑特别感染人的。所以我觉得她 很阳光,而且充满自信,这是她突出的这样一 个特点。所以我觉得,这是她今天取得好成绩 当中,心理素质非常好,是非常重要的。

高考总分:711分 毕业学校:北京八中 语文139分 数学140分 英语141分 理综291分 报考高校:

北京大学光华管理学院

北京市理科状元杨蕙心

班主任 孙烨:杨蕙心是一个目标高远 的学生,而且具有很好的学习品质。学 习效率高是杨蕙心的一大特点,一般同 学两三个小时才能完成的作业,她一个 小时就能完成。杨蕙心分析问题的能力 很强,这一点在平常的考试中可以体现。 每当杨蕙心在某科考试中出现了问题, 她能很快找到问题的原因,并马上拿出 解决办法。

孙老师说,杨蕙心学习效率很高,认真执行老师 的复习要求,往往一个小时能完成别人两三个小 时的作业量,而且计划性强,善于自我调节。此 外,学校还有一群与她实力相当的同学,他们经 常在一起切磋、交流,形成一种良性的竞争氛围。 谈起自己的高考心得,杨蕙心说出了“听话” 两个字。她认为在高三冲刺阶段一定要跟随老师 的脚步。“老师介绍的都是多年积累的学习方法, 肯定是最有益的。”高三紧张的学习中,她常做 的事情就是告诫自己要坚持,不能因为一次考试 成绩就否定自己。高三的几次模拟考试中,她的 成绩一直稳定在年级前5名左右。

上海 2006 高考 理科 状元-武亦 文
武亦文 格致中学理科班学生 班级职务:学习委员 高考志愿:复旦经济 高考成绩:语文127分 数学142分 英语144分 物理145分 综合27分 总分585分

“一分也不能少”
“我坚持做好每天的预习、复习,每 天放学回家看半小时报纸,晚上10: 30休息,感觉很轻松地度过了三年 高中学习。”当得知自己的高考成 绩后,格致中学的武亦文遗憾地说 道,“平时模拟考试时,自己总有 一门满分,这次高考却没有出现, 有些遗憾。”

坚持做好每个学习步骤
武亦文的高考高分来自于她日常严谨的学习 态度,坚持认真做好每天的预习、复习。 “高中三年,从来没有熬夜,上课跟着老师 走,保证课堂效率。”武亦文介绍,“班主 任王老师对我的成长起了很大引导作用,王 老师办事很认真,凡事都会投入自己所有精 力,看重做事的过程而不重结果。每当学生 没有取得好结果,王老师也会淡然一笑,鼓 励学生注重学习的过程。”

曹杨二中高三(14)班学生 班级职务:学习委员 高考志愿:北京 大学中文系 高考成绩:语文121分数学146分 英语146分历史134分 综合28分总分 575分 (另有附加分10 分)

上海高考文科状元--常方舟

“我对竞赛题一样发怵” 总结自己的成功经验,常方舟认为学习的高 效率是最重要因素,“高中三年,我每天晚 上都是10:30休息,这个生活习惯雷打不动。 早晨总是6:15起床,以保证八小时左右的睡 眠。平时功课再多再忙,我也不会‘开夜 车’。身体健康,体力充沛才能保证有效学 习。”高三阶段,有的同学每天学习到凌晨 两三点,这种习惯在常方舟看来反而会影响 次日的学习状态。每天课后,常方舟也不会 花太多时间做功课,常常是做完老师布置的 作业就算完。

“用好课堂40分钟最重要。我的经验是,哪怕 是再简单的内容,仔细听和不上心,效果肯 定是不一样的。对于课堂上老师讲解的内容, 有的同学觉得很简单,听讲就不会很认真, 但老师讲解往往是由浅入深的,开始不认真, 后来就很难听懂了;即使能听懂,中间也可 能出现一些知识盲区。高考试题考的大多是 基础知识,正就是很多同学眼里很简单的内 容。”常方舟告诉记者,其实自己对竞赛试 题类偏难的题目并不擅长,高考出色的原因 正在于试题多为基础题,对上了自己的“口 味”。


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