闵行区 2014 学年第二学期高三年级质量调研考试英语试卷 第 I 卷 (共 103 分) I. listening comprehension(略) II. Grammar and vocabulary:
Section A
My husband, my four-month-old daughter and I set out on a five-day journey from California to Washington. We had to stop frequently __25_____(relax) ourselves. One of our stops, once we crossed the Oregon border, was at a Black Bear Diner. Walking towards the front door we noticed a gentleman ___26____ (stand) at one side. He was clearly untidy, without shoes and wearing worn clothing. We passed right by him and opened the restaurant door. Then something told me to go back. Thinking the gentleman ____27__need something to eat, I turned around and said to the gentleman, “Sir, are you hungry?” He said, “Yes.” I then asked, “May we buy you something to eat?” He responded with, “Sure, I can order something myself.” My husband opened the door and the gentleman went straight to the counter. I told him to order __28__ he wanted. The manager of the restaurant came over quite quickly and looked frightened. I spoke before he had an opportunity to say anything. “This gentleman will have lunch with us today,” I said. “Please add his order __29__ our bill.” The manager said with a frown(皱眉), “Ok.” We turned to our table and the gentleman said, loudly and quickly, “Thank you!” Soon we seated ourselves at the table and upon finishing our meal we __30__ our bill. I asked my husband what the gentleman __31___(order). One fresh orange juice, one coffee, one breakfast combination with a slide of hash browns. When we left the restaurant I looked for the gentleman but didn’t see him, but that very small act just made my day. I hope in some small way we were able to bring some joy into his life, _32__ _____ it only lasted for a few minutes. B. Every time you go to the supermarket, you come away with your purchases in plastic bags. But wouldn’t it be kinder to the environment __33___ you asked for paper bags instead? __34__ answer is not as easy as it might seem. Environmentalists say there are disadvantages in using both plastic and paper bags. Some experts believe that all these bags harm the environment. Plastic takes hundreds of years to break down and , as it does so, poisonous materials are released into the water and soil. __35__(far) damage is caused if plastic bags enter the sea. For example, endangered sea

turtles cannot tell the bags from jellyfish(水母), their main source of food, and often choke (噎死)on them. Floating plastic bags have been spotted as far north as the Arctic Ocean and as far south as the southern end of South America, __36__ has caused great concern among scientists. However, this kind of bag does have its advantages. “Plastic grocery bags are some of the most ___37__(reuse) things around the house,” explained Laurie Kusek of the American Plastic Council. Although paper bags are believed to be more environment-friendly, the fact is unknown t some people __38__ paper bags use more energy when manufactured and create more wastes than plastic bags. So you may ask __39__, what to do. One possible solution would be t use biodegradable( 可 降解的) plastic bags. But it might be wiser to pack things you buy in reusable cloth bags __40___ biodegradable products become more reliable.

Section B
A. belief B. discourage C. choices D. issue G. demonstrate H. ensure I. incomparable E. try F. characterize J. opposing K. responsible

The unique features of colleges and universities in the US. are hardly shared by their competitors in Europe or Asia. Many foreign students are attracted not only to the academic programs at a particular US college but also to the larger community, which affords the chance for them to absorb the surrounding culture. Clubs, sports teams, student publications and drama societies __-41__ colorful and enjoyable American campus life. However, few foreign universities put much emphasis on this. “In people’s minds, the campus and the American university are both admirable,” says Brown University President Vartan Gregorian. In America, people have a strong __42__ that a student’s daily life is as important as his learning experience.” Foreign students also come in search of __43__. America’s menu of opinions---research universities, state institutions, private liberal-arts schools, community colleges, religious institutions--- is __44___. No any single Europeans country can offer such variety. “In Europe,” says history professor Jonathan Steinberg, who has taught at both Harvard and Cambridge, there is only one system, and that is it.” From the beginning, students overseas usually are required to ___45__ professional skills in a specific field, whether law or philosophy or Chemistry. Most American universities insist that students have a(n) __46___ on natural and social sciences, languages and literature before choosing a field of concentration. Such __47___ philosophies grow out of different traditions and power structures. In Europe and Japan,universities are __48___ only to a ministry of education, which sets academic standards and provides money. Centralization(集权化) is likely to __49__ that all students are equipped with roughly the same resources and perform at roughly the same level. On the other hand, it may also __50__ the testing of different ideas. “When they make mistakes, they make big ones,” says Robert Rosenzweig, president of the Association of American universities. “They set a system in wrong directions, and it’s like piloting a super ship.”

III. Reading comprehension:
Section A
Apes and humans beings share a lot in common when it comes to behavior. The evidence taken from the observation of the behavior of apes and children suggests that there are three causes for the outbreak of fighting and the exhibition of __51__ by individuals. One of the most common causes of fighting among both children and apes was over the ___52___ of external objects. The argument over the ownership of any desired object---food, clothes, toys, females, and the affection of others--- was sufficient reason to __53___ force. In a case of monkeys’ disagreement over females. thirty females were killed. Two points are of particular interest to notice about these fights for possession. In the first place, the fights are often carried to such an extreme that they end in the __54__ destruction of the objects of common desire. Toys are torn to pieces and females are killed. In the second place it is observable, that __55__ occurs when an object is desired by only one person or by someone else. There were many cases where toys and other objects which had been thrown away as useless were __56___ defended by their owners when they became the object of some other child’s desire. Another cause of aggression is the tendency for children and apes are greatly to __57__ the invading of a stranger into their group. A new child in the class may be laughed at, isolated, and disliked. A new monkey may be bitten to death. It is interesting to note that anger occurs when a stranger comes from the __58__ species. Monkeys do not mind being __59__ by a goat or a rat. Children do not object when animals are introduced to the group. As a matter of fact, such newcomers are often __60__ . But when monkeys meet a new monkey or children a strange child, aggression often occurs. This strongly suggests that the reason for the aggression is fundamentally possessiveness. The ___61__ of the newcomers is feared. The present members of the group feel that there will be more competitors for the food or the attention of the adults. Finally, another common source of fighting among children is a frustration or failure in their own ___62__ .A child will be stopped either by __63__ causes such as bad weather or illness from doing something he wishes to do, for example, sail his boat or ride the bicycle. Sometimes the activity may be __64__ because of the opposition of some adult. The child may also frustrate itself by __65___, through lack of skill or strength, to complete successfully some desired activity. Such a child will then in the ordinary sense become “naughty”. He will be in a bad or unfriendly temper. 51. A. fulfillment B. excitement C. isolation D. aggressiveness 52. A. usage B. possession C. value D. collection 53. A. turn to B. drive away C. come over D. make into 54. A. moderate B. subtle C. complete D. temporary 55. A. conflict B. negotiation C. agreement D. donation 56. A. reluctantly B. violently C. unwillingly D. peacefully 57.A. ignore B. accept C. prove D. hate 58. A. similar B. modest C. strong D. reliable

59. A. observed 60. A. offensive 61. A. strength 62. A. knowledge 63. A. natural 64. A. enhanced 65. A. learning

B. protected B. considerate B. attitude B. activity B. physical B. operated B. falling

C. joined C. generous C. competition C. study C. financial C. extended C. imitating

D. spoiled D. welcomed D. emotion D. personality D. academic D. prevented D. refusing

Section B
A. Around the world coral reefs(珊瑚礁) are facing threats brought by climate change and great changes in sea temperatures. While ocean warming has been the primary focus for scientists and ocean policy managers, cold events can also whiten corals. A new study by scientists compared damage to corals caused by heat as well as cold stress. The results show that cool temperatures can cause more damage in the short term, but heat is more destructive in the long run. Climate change is widely known to produce warming conditions in the oceans, but extreme cold-water events have become more frequent and serious as well. I 2010, for example, coral reefs around the world faced one of the coldest winters and one of the hottest summers on record. During a unique experiment, corals under cold temperatures suffered greater damage in just days compared with the heat treated corals. Yet the researchers found that corals were eventually able to adjust to the cold conditions, make their health stable and continue to grow. However, over the long term corals subjected to heat suffered more greatly than those in cold, with evidence of severe whitening and growth stoppage, which leads to death. The coral’s ability to adjust to cool temperatures surprised the researchers, who say the study’s results show the complexities of monitoring coral health in response to different environmental factors. “Global warming is associated with increases but also decreases of temperatures,” said Deheyn, one of the researchers. “Not much has been known about the comparative effects of temperature decrease on corals. These results are important because they show that corals react differently to temperature differences, which is important for future management of coral reefs in the field of climate change.” 66. According to the first paragraph, we know that ____________. A. different corals suffer differently by climate change. B. both heat and cold stress affect corals. C. cool temperature is more destructive to corals. D. it’s hard to know the effect of climate change on corals. 67. The phrase “subjected to”(in Paragraph 3) is closest in meaning to”_______”. A. referred to B. adjusted to C. exposed to D. stuck to 68. By “Not much has been known about…” Deheyn probably means that ______.

A. we know very little about the effects of temperature decrease on corals B. temperature decrease is not expected to have a bad effect on corals C. it makes no sense to study the effects of temperature decrease on corals D. corals may not have been affected by the decrease in temperature. 69. What is the passage mainly about? A. measures should be taken to control global warming. B. Climate change has resulted in more cold currents. C. Heat is responsible for the destruction of corals. D. Heat can cold damage corals in their own ways. B. Good tool design is important in the prevention of overuse injuries. Well-designed tools and devices will require less force to operate them and prevent awkward hand positions. They will allow the worker to keep the elbows (肘部) next to the body to prevent damage to the shoulder and arm. Overuse injuries can therefore be prevented or reduced if the employer provides, and workers use: ●power tools rather than having t use muscle power. ●tools with specially designed handles that allow the wrist to keep straight (See Figure I). This means that hands and wrists are kept in the same position as they would be if they were hanging relaxed at a person’s side ●tools with handles that can be held comfortably by the whole hand. This means having a selection of sizes--- remember that tools that provide a comfortable firm hold for a person with a very large hand may be awkward for someone with a very small hand. This is a particularly important consideration for women who may use tools originally designed for men. ●tools that do not press fingers (or flesh) between the handles, and whose handles do not have sharp edges or a small surface area.

70. Which of the following might be the best title for the passage? A. Good Tool Design for Women B. Tool Design and Prevention of Injuries C. Examples of Good Tool Design D. Overuse of Tools and Worker Protection 71. Which of the following describes a well-designed tool? A. It’s kept close to the body. B. It fully uses muscle power. C. It makes users feel relaxed. D. It’s operated with less force.

72. What is Figure I used to show? A. The effective use of the tool B. The way of operating the tool. C. The proper design of the handle. D. The purpose of bending the wrist. 73. In choosing tools for women, _______ of the handle is the most important. A. the size B. the edge C. the shape D. position C. When we perceive other people, we seldom describe a person in cold and objective words. “She was 5 feet 8 inches tall, had fair hair, and wore a colored skirt.” More often, we try to get inside the other person to pinpoint his or her attitudes, emotions, motivations, abilities, ideas and characters. Furthermore, we sometimes behave as if we can accomplish this difficult job very quickly---perhaps with a two-second glance. We try to obtain information about others in may ways. Social scientist Berger suggests several methods for reducing uncertainties about others: watching, without being noticed, a person interacting with others, particularly with others who are known to you so you can compare the observed person’s behavior with the known others’ behavior, observing a person in a situation where social behavior is relatively unrestrained or where a wide variety of behavioral responses are called for; deliberately structuring the physical or social environment so as to observe the person’s responses to specific stimuli; asking people who have had or have frequent contact with the person about him or her; and using various strategies in face-to-face interaction to uncover information about another person: questions, self-disclosures(自我表露), and so on. Getting to know someone is a never-ending task, largely because people are constantly changing and the methods we use to obtain information are often imprecise. You may have known someone for ten years and still know very little about him. If we accept the idea that we won’t ever fully know another person, it enables us to deal more easily with those things that get in the way of accurate knowledge such as secrets and description It will also keep us from being too surprised or shocked by seemingly inconsistent(前后不一致) behavior. Ironically (讽刺性的) those things that keep us from knowing another person too well (e.g., secrets and deceptions) may be just as important to the development of satisfying relationship as those things that enables us to obtain accurate knowledge about a person (e.g., disclosure and truthful statements.) 74. The word “pinpoint” (in 1st para0 is closest in means to _______. A. appreciate B. obtain C. identify D. interpret 75. What do we learn from the first paragraph? A. People like to be described in cold, objective words. B. It is impossible to get inside of a person. C. It is difficult to describe a person in words. D. Getting to know a person is usually no easy job. 76. It can be inferred from Berger’s suggestions that ______. A. people do not reveal their true self on every occasion B. the best way to know a person is by making comparisons C. in most cases we should avoid contacting the observed person directly D. face –to-face interaction is the best strategy to uncover information about a person 77. The author’s purpose in writing the passage is to _______. A. discuss the various aspects of getting to know people

B. provide ways of how to obtain information about people C. warn readers of the negative side of people’s characters D. give advice on appropriate behaviors for social occasions

Section C:
For years, there has been a bias (偏见) against science among clinical psychologists (临床心 理学家). In a two-year analysis to be published in November in Perspectives on Psychological Science, psychologists led by Timothy B. Baker of the University of Wisconsin charge that many clinical psychologists fail to “provide the treatments for which there is the strongest evidence of effectiveness” and “give more weight to their personal experiences than to science.” As a result, patients have no guarantee that their “treatment will be informed by … science.” Walter Mischel of Columbia University is even crueler in his judgment. “The disconnect between what clinical psychologists do and what science has discovered is an extreme embarrassment,” he told me, and “there is a widening gap between clinical practice and science.” The “widening” reflects the great progress that psychological research has made in identifying (确认) the most effective treatments. Thanks to strict clinical trials, we now know that teaching patients to think about their thoughts in new, healthier ways and to act on those new ways of thinking are effective against depression, panic disorder and other problems, with multiple trials showing that these treatments — the tools of psychology — bring more lasting benefits than drugs. You wouldn’t know this if you sought help from a typical clinical psychologist. Although many treatments are effective, relatively few psychologists learn or practice them. Why in the world not? For one thing, says Baker, clinical psychologists are “very doubtful about the role of science” and “lack solid science training”. Also, one third of patients get better no matter what treatment (if any) they have, “and psychologists remember these successes, believing, wrongly, that they are the result of the treatment.” When faced with evidence that treatments they offer are not supported by science, clinical psychologists argue that they know better than some study what works. A 2008 study of 591 psychologists in private practice found that they rely more on their own and colleagues’ experience than on science when deciding how to treat a patient. If they keep on this path as insurance companies demand evidence-based medicine, warns Mischel, psychology will “discredit (损伤名誉)itself.” (Note: Answer the questions or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN 12 WORDS) 78. Clinical psychologists can’t explain the effectiveness of their treatment mainly because they rely on____________________. 79. What has widened the gap between clinical practice and science? 80. According to Baker, what are the reasons that prevent clinical psychologists from learning or practicing effective treatment? 81. To avoid discrediting psychology, clinical psychologists need to __________________.

第 II 卷(共 47 分) I. Translation:
82. 你有兴趣参加今晚的英语演讲比赛吗?(mood) 83. 新建的医院让这里的居民就医方便多了。(…it…) 84. 慈善晚会上募集的款项将用来建一座社区老年活动中心。(collect) 85. 这位经理有丰富的酒店管理经验,因此他处理客人的投诉总是得心应手。(full of) 86. 万一你在森林中迷路,最保险的做法是留在原地,并设法立刻与专业营救队取得联系。 (in case)

II. Guided writing:
以下是三座城市在就业、娱乐、环境方面的满意度。假如你的家庭打算移居到其中的某 座城市, 请从你和家庭的情况考虑选择一座比较满意的城市, 并简要谈谈选择这座城市的理 由。 提示:不必对图表中的数据做详细描写。

1-10 CCCDA CBDDC 11-13 BCA 14-16 BDA 17. flat 18. convenience 19. electricity 20. December 21. sales income 22. equipment and technology 23. commercials 24. stay profitable 25. to relax 26. standing 27. might 28. whatever/what 29. to 30. were handed 31.had ordered 32. even if 33. if 34. The 35. Further 36. which 37. reused 38. that 39. yourself 40. until 41-50 FACIG EJKHB 51-55 DBACA 56-60 BDACD 61-65 CBADB 66-69 BCAD 70-73 BDCA 74-77 CDCA 78. their personal experience 79. The great progress in psychological research 80. Their doubt about the role of science and inadequate science training 81. support their treatment with science 1. Are you in the mood to take part in the English speech contest? 2. The newly-built hospital has made it more convenient for the people here to see doctors. 3. The fund/ money collected /which was collected in the charity party will be used to set up a community recreation centre for the elderly. 4. The manager is full of experience in hotel management, so he is always able to deal with consumers’ complaints effectively. 5. In case you get lost in a forest, the safest way is to stay where you are and try to get in touch with a professional rescue team immediately.